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The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Burada Haplogroup T'nin Türkiye-Türkistan Karşılaştırması yapılıyor ve haplogrubun Türk Kökeni kanıtlanıyor.

Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 17 May 2015, 20:21

Yang et. al. 2008 finds 48.2%(27/56) of haplogroup K*(xL,N,O1,O3c,P) among the Yugur Turks.

To determine the haplogroup O frequencies among the Yugur Turks, we must analyze another study named Zhou et. al. 2008, in which these results are printed:

Western Yugurs:
O*: 1.9%
O3: 34.6%

Eastern Yugurs:
O*: 1.9%
O1*: 11.11%
O3: 31.1%

The O3c frequency at Yang et. al. 2008 is 7,1%. The highest total frequency for O among Yugur Turks is 44.11%. If we accept that O1* and O3c is already excluded from the 48.2%(27/56) K*(xL,N,O1,O3c,P) result, we see that the highest frequency of O1* and O3c is 11.11% and 7.1%. The highest highest frequency of O*(O1, O3) is 3.1%.
If we make a calculation: 44.11% - 11.11% - 7.1% = 25.9%.
Second calculation: 48.2%(27/56) - 25.9% = 22.3%
Out of these calculations we could estimate that out of the 48.2%(27/56) of haplogroup K*(xL,N,O1,O3c,P), at least 22.3% should belong to haplogroup T. There is a chance the T frequency is much higher or maybe a little bit less because of the K*(xL,N,O,P,T) possibility. All in all, we can conclude that haplogroup T is definitely an important factor among specific tribes/groups of the Yugur Turks.


Shou et. al. 2010 finds 6.3%(2/32) of haplogroup K*(xN,O,P) among the Yugur Turks.


The haplogroup O results at Shou et. al. 2010, among the Yugur Turks:

O*: 3.1%(1/32)
O3: 12.5%(4/32)
O3e: 3.1%(1/32)

So, if we take this total result set of O, which is totally 18.7%, and if we accept that O3c is 7.1%, then we should make this calculation: 48.2%(27/56) - 18.7% + 7.1% = 36.6%.
Out of this calculation we could estimate that out of the 48.2%(27/56) of haplogroup K*(xL,N,O1,O3c,P), at least 36.6% should belong to haplogroup T, more or less is also possible.

Also, Yang et. al. 2008 finds 1,8% of haplogroup D, while Zhou et. al. 2008 finds 19,2% of haplogroup D and Shou et. al. 2010 finds 43,8% of haplogroup D. We can easily see the variations of the frequencies in three different groups of Yugur Turks. It means that there is a chance that the majority of the 48.2%(27/56) of haplogroup K*(xL,N,O1,O3c,P) at Yang et. al. 2008 could belong to haplogroup T.

Also, the 8.9% of West Eurasian haplogroup J among the Yugur Turks, also suggest that the majority of the K*(xL,N,O1,O3c,P) could belong to T.

The haplogroup O results at Xu et. al. 2017(The Silk Road: Language and Population Admixture and Replacement), among the Yugur Turks:

Eastern Yugurs:

-O1a: 8,16%
-O3a: 14,38%

Conclusion: In total the frequency of Haplogroup O is 16,54%(7/45). If we compare this with the Yang et. al. 2008 results, with 48.2%(27/56) of haplogroup K*(xL,N,O1,O3c,P) and 7,1% of O3c, we get 38,8% of possible Y-DNA Haplogroup T(48.2% - 9,44%). Very notable is also the 10,20%(5/45) of Western Eurasian Y-DNA Haplogroup J-M304 and 2,04%(1/45) of L among the Yugurs.


Western Yugurs:

-O2: 1,85%
-O3a: 27,8%

Conclusion: In total the frequency of Haplogroup O is 16,54%(7/45). If we compare this with the Yang et. al. 2008 results, with 48.2%(27/56) of haplogroup K*(xL,N,O1,O3c,P) and 7,1% of O3c, we get 18,6% of possible Y-DNA Haplogroup T(48.2% - 29,65%).

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Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 20 May 2015, 17:02

In the study of David K. Faux in 2007, “The Genetic Link of the Viking – Era Norse to Central Asia: An Assessment of the Y Chromosome DNA, Archaeological, Historical and Linguistic Evidence”,he said he found in Shetland project, haplogroups K2-M70, R1a and Q, and links these haplogroups with the Scythians and the Huns, also provides archaeological and historical analysis.

The archaeological record (documented by Tejral, 1997) shows new artistic features that manifest themselves at this time (first part of the 5thCentury) and have been attributed to Scythian (Siberian tribal peoples from south central Asia for whom the horse was paramount) influences. Animal motifs with imaginary beasts and elephants with elaborate decorative work appear in Scandinavia –which “points unquestionably to definite Eastern connections.” (Talbot Rice, 1957). Specifically these artifacts, according to Tejral, are part of the “Soesdala Style” (horse paraphernalia including stamped ornamentation, and animal heads shown in profile).

Also making an appearance in the archaeological record of the 5th Century are characteristic bracelets, and since they are of “Scandinavian origin and not a usual trading object the flow must have followed Huns or Eastgermanic horsemen from Scandinavia back to Southeastern Europe” (Brandt, 2004). There are apparently identical objects found in the Czekish Zhuran
– mound at Brno and at Bornholm and Oeland in Sweden (Terjal). At Bornholm, for example horses are found in the graves (a Central Asian tradition). Basically the archaeological evidence strongly suggests that from the 5 th Century there was a strong cultural continuity between the areas in Scandanavia and points south and includes artifacts from as far east as Afghanistan

Evidence from Norway provides more evidence to support the “Central Asian migration theory”. For example in Eveboe at Nordfjord in Western Norway is seen a burial mound that duplicates what is seen in the East. Here is found a 5th Century grave with Syrian glass, a geometric toy seen only in Iran and Afghanistan and inhumations of three chiefs “connected in a way which involved the Huns or Eastergermanic horsemen in the Danubian area” (Brandt, 2004).

Odin then headed northward, installing another of his sons as ruler of Jutland, and proceeded on to Sweden whose king was Gylfi. “When the king learned of the coming of these men of Asia, who were called Asir, he went to meet them, and made offer to them that Odin should have such power in his realm as he himself wielded.” Continuing, Snorri reported that, “The fields and the choice lands in that place seemed fair to Odin, and he chose for himself the site of a city which is now called Sigtun. There he established chieftains in the fashion which had prevailed in Turkland; he set up also twelve head – men to be doomsmen over the people and to judge the laws of the land; and he o rdained also all laws as, there had been before, in Turkland, and according to the customs of the Turks. After that he went into the north, until he was stopped by the sea, which men thought lay around all the lands of the earth; and there he set his son over this kingdom, which is now called Norway. This king was Saemingr; the kings of Norway trace their lineage from him, and so do also the jarls and the other mighty men, as is said in the Haleygjatal. Odin had with him one of his sons called Yngvi, who was king in Sweden after him; and those houses come from him that are named Ynglings. The Asir took wives of the land for themselves, and some also for their sons.” (p. 13)

Apparently then this migration from the land of the Turkish peoples was largely a male phenomenon, and thus there should be seen in the genetic patterns of the Norse and Swedes some percentage of Asian Y chromosomes (male lineage), but little or no trace of Asiatic female migration (mitochondrial DNA, female lineage).

Odin Divides his Kingdom, “There goes a great mountain barrier from north - east to south - west, which divides the Greater Swithiod [ancient Samartia and Scythia Magna] from other kingdoms. South of this mountain ridge [Ural Mountains] it is not far to Turkland [probably Turkistan in around the Aral Sea in Asia Minor], where Odin had great possessions. In those times Roman chiefs went wide around the world, subduing to themselves all people; and on this account many chiefs fled from their domains.

If, and it is a “big if”, these traditions can be taken as a weaving of fact and mythology, then the people who are the ancestors of the Swedish and Norse Dynasties are the Ases, a Turkic Asian people (also known as Asir) from east of the River Don, who resided in that location during Roman Times, and who had as their primary city at that time Asgaard, located somewhere east of the Don and south of the Ural Mountains and possibly at Chasgar in the Caucasus Mountains. When Odin and his people left to move north to Sweden, apparently with the people on the other side of the River Don with whom they had intermarried, he left his two brothers in control of Asgaard

Uldin – It would be difficult not to notice the similarity between the name of the Hunnic “king”, and the name of the Asian leader of the Norse Sagas named Odin. Odin is characterized as a great warrior who won many battles upon crossing the River Don.

The historic Uldin was considered by some authors to be the man who united the Huns and led them to their decisive victory over the (Eastern) Ostrogoths who became subjects of the Huns.

After 408 Uldin, the first Hun to be mentioned by name in the chronicles of the day disappears from the historical record, and we know that his successors in 412 were Donatus and Charato (perhaps the two brothers of Odin mentioned in the Sagas).

According to the thesis put forward here, Uldin / Odin appears in Sweden a few years later with his Hun – Alan followers and remenants of the Ostrogoths to negotiate with King Gefir prior to taking up residence at Sigtun on Lake Malar.

The K lineage is an old lineage presently found only at low frequencies in Africa, Asia, and in the south Pacific. One descendent line of this lineage is restricted to aboriginal Australians, while another is found at low frequency in Southern Europe, Northern Africa, and the Middle East, but at higher levels in Central Asia and the Caucasus. Most of the haplogroup K are probably K2 (M70). It is a rare haplogroup anywhere in Northern Europe and is seen only in trace amounts.

The above are the haplogroups that potentially might be found in both Central Asians and their proposed kin in Scandinavia. The focus of the present study will be on R1a, Q and K since they have been found in the Shetland Islands Y-DNA Database(http://www.davidkfaux.org/shetlandislandsY-DNA.html), are found in sufficient numbers in Central Asia to show up frequently in databases there, and there is in general sufficient data in the literature to be able to make direct comparisons. Unfortunately this is not so with haplogroup C3 where its documented presence in Europe is extremely low. The same situation prevails with haplogroups N3 and G2, found in small Scandinavian “enclaves”, but as yet not observed in the Scandinavian colonies – with the exception of one N3 in Helgason’s (2000) study noted elsewhere.

Haplogroup K is in much the same situation as Q, however it is found more widespread in the Middle East, Southern Europe, as well as Central Asia where it reaches its maximum numbers. Haplogroup K appears to be dispersed along the “Silk Road” that for centuries has joined east and west. Haplogroup K is even spottier in Scandinavia. At this point it appears that it might be more prevalent in Sweden, and in the Faroe Islands (thought to have been settled by the Norwegians and the Swedes during the 9th Century AD).

The evidence that Q and K have been in Scandinavia since before the Viking era circa 800 AD is that they are both found in Norse colonies at even higher levels than in Norway or Sweden.

K Haplogroup in Asian and European Populations
K is extremely rare in Europe (where it is seen primarily in the southern tier), but common in Central Asia and the Middle East. Thus it is not possible to obtain samples from most of Europe.

There are extreme variations in those who have the K haplogroup (high diversity), and low sample sizes in private databases and published studies mean that it will be relative rare in some populations in Asia and most in Europe. It is more concentrated in Central Asia and the Middle East, and is virtually absent in Northern Europe with the exception of the Scandinavia countries and Norse colonies.

Searching the database of the 2000 year old Mongolian necropolis(Egyin Gol, Xiongnu) (see discussion R1a above ) there was only one sample that appeared to be Haplogroup K, denoted in blue (although without SNP testing this is only a hypothesis).

It is likely that the R1a, K and the Q identified in this study are from Central Asia – the home of the Aseri R1a signature, which is modal to those detected in Central Asian Altai populations.

The K from the Asia turns up very occasionally in Swedish and Norwegian samples, and has been documented in the Faroe Islands (a Norse colony) and Shetland. Clearly it seems probable by an examination of the distribution of Y chromosomes today that the majority of the Asian group was R1a, followed by Q, then K.

The best estimate of the total percentage of Asian Y chromosomes in the Norse population is 4% Q plus 1% K plus 10% via R1a making a total of 15%. The reason why the timing of the influx of people can be dated to before 793 is that Q is also found in the colonies founded by Norway during early Viking times. The human genetic data is even supported by a comparison of the genetics of the Norwegian Fjord horse and the Mongolian horse and the data suggests that the migrants to Scandinavia brought with them their prized horses which became the root stock of the Norwegian equines of today.

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Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 12 Tem 2015, 17:23

Vedik Aryanîler gelmeden önceki Hindistan'da şimdi Mohanjodaro ve Harappa şehir harabelerinde meydana çıkarılan medeniyeti yaşatan kavmin de Avustroasiatik, İndonez kavimlerinin başka kavimlerle karışmasından vücuda gelen bir melez unsur olduğu görülüyor; buna Altay zümresine mensup kavimlerin de karışmış olduğu, burada bulunan heykelcikler arasında, Ortaasya Türk tipini arzeden ve başında saçlarını da. Cengiz Hanın, eski bir Çinli tarafından yapılan resminde gördüğümüz gibi, şerid ile bağlanmış olan bir tanesi şehadet ediyor.

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Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 14 Tem 2016, 23:45

Y chromosome haplotype diversity in Mongolic-speaking populations and gene conversion at the duplicated STR DYS385a,b in haplogroup C3-M407

Among the Barghut Mongols, the following West-Eurasian Y-DNA haplogroups were found:

G-M201: 1/76 (1.3%)
J2a-M410: 1/76 (1.3%)
T-M70: 1/76 (1.3%)
R2a-M124: 1/76 (1.3%)

The finding of this T-M70 shows that most of the non sub typed K*-M9 results from previous academic studies from neighbouring areas, belong to T-M70. The origin of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup T-M70 is to be found among populations such as the Altai Republic Kazakh Turks, Tuvinian Turks, Yugur Turks, Chuvash Turks, Azerbaijani Turks, etc. whom have all Proto Turk ancestry.

http://www.nature.com/jhg/journal/v61/n ... gure-title
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Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 23 Tem 2016, 11:49

Among the Turks in Cyprus, Haplogroup T was found with a frequency of 5,3%(14/380).

Source: Turkish Cypriot paternal lineages bear an autochthonous character and closest resemblance to those from neighboring Near Eastern populations

https://www.researchgate.net/publicatio ... opulations
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Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 04 Eyl 2016, 20:57

At the study AGDZHOYAN ET AL, Among the Crimean and Kazan Tatars Haplogroup T1-M70 was found with a frequency of 1-5%(3/104).

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Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 04 Eyl 2016, 21:03

At the study performed by "NV Kachanov-Prik", 59 Crimean Karaite Turks were tested for Y-DNA haplogroup. 10,2%(6/59) of the Karaites have Haplogroup T-M70.


Source: http://www.karaims.ru/page.php?cod=ru&p ... e=49&p=301

Note: Also, to note that the publicly available FT-dna T-M70 data, shows that a significant part of the T-M70 results are coming from Ashkenazi people having origins in regions like Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania. Together with the Karaite(Karaites are the direct descendants of the Khazar Turks) Haplogroup T-M70 results above, this shows that the origin of Haplogroup T-M70 is equal to the West Eurasian origin(1 West Eurasian anthrolopogical type which is equal to multiple West Eurasian haplogroups: E, G, H, I, J, L, R, T) of the medieval Khazar Turks.
Also the fact that haplogroup L1a(LT* => L* and T*) has been found within the earliest Kura Araxes archaeological culture people(Kura Araxes culture: the root of the Proto Turk Kurgan Culture) shows that Haplogroup T-M70 is of Proto Turk origin(West Eurasian origin).
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Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 15 Eki 2016, 01:10


http://store.michaelyamashita.com/media ... e-ancestry

Chinese people in Kenya

There may have been minor settlement of Chinese people in Kenya as early as the 15th century; however, modern migration from the People's Republic of China to Kenya only dates to the late 1990s and early 2000s. There are estimated to be anywhere between 3,000 and 10,000 Chinese people in the country.

Migration history

Zheng He's fleet

Early Chinese mariners had a variety of contacts with Kenya. Archaeologists have found Chinese porcelains made during the Tang dynasty (618–907) in Kenyan villages; however, these were believed to have been brought over by Zheng He during his 15th century ocean voyages.[4] On Lamu Island off the Kenyan coast, local oral tradition maintains that 20 shipwrecked Chinese sailors, possibly part of Zheng's fleet, washed up on shore there hundreds of years ago. Given permission to settle by local tribes after having killed a dangerous python, they converted to Islam and married local women. Now, they are believed to have just six descendants left there; in 2002, DNA tests conducted on one of the women confirmed that she was of Chinese descent. Her daughter, Mwamaka Sharifu, later received a PRC government scholarship to study traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in China.

On Pate Island, Frank Viviano described in a July 2005 National Geographic article how ceramic fragments had been found around Lamu which the administrative officer of the local Swahili history museum claimed were of Chinese origin, specifically from Zheng He's voyage to east Africa. The eyes of the Pate people resembled Chinese and Famao and Wei were some of the names among them which were speculated to be of Chinese origin. Their ancestors were said to be from indigenous women who intermarried with Chinese Ming sailors when they were shipwrecked. Two places on Pate were called "Old Shanga", and "New Shanga", which the Chinese sailors had named. A local guide who claimed descent from the Chinese showed Frank a graveyard made out of coral on the island, indicating that they were the graves of the Chinese sailors, which the author described as "virtually identical", to Chinese Ming dynasty tombs, complete with "half-moon domes" and "terraced entries".


Kenya is bordered by Tanzania to the south, Uganda to the west, South Sudan to the north-west, Ethiopia to the north and Somalia to the north-east.

Admiral Zheng He

I read Ma Huan's words to Vipin Vasudevan in the Cochin offices of the India Pepper and Spice Trade Association, on the very street where Zheng He's commercial agents had once talked business. Vasudevan, then the association's marketing executive, was managing the annual sale of 66,000 tons (59,874 metric tons) of Malabar pepper. A smile of recognition slowly lit his face as he listened to a passage from Ma about a 15th-century negotiating session in Malabar. Supervised by the Cochin maharaja's personal representative, it brought together local brokers, accountants, and prospective buyers. Goods and costs were discussed, an agreement drafted. Then, Ma wrote, all the parties joined hands, declaring "whether the price be dear or cheap, we will never repudiate it or change it."

It was, said Vasudevan, "so close to how pepper trading works now, that I could have written it myself." The Spice Trade Association had replaced the king's representative at the negotiating table, but the general process had barely changed. "Everyone involved is legally bound by the agreement," Vasudevan said, then added: "We are all morally bound by it as well."

Ma had written one of history's first descriptions of a futures market, the means by which Malabar pepper and most other world commodities are sold today. A market that can function only if Vasudevan's "moral bond" holds. A model of exchange in a world ever wracked by conflict.

It took me three days' travel out of Nairobi, by air, land, and sea, to reach Pate Island. I had been warned by Kenyan officials that roads into the area were dangerous, beset by marauding gunmen from wars in Somalia and Sudan.

Pate lies in Kenya's Lamu archipelago, just south of the Somali border. En route to its principal African destination, Malindi, the Treasure Fleet almost certainly anchored there for water and provisions.

In the 14th century Malindi and Pate were among the richest of the Swahili kingdoms, a grand civilization of merchant princes whose realm extended as far south as Mozambique. Reminders of that brilliant past are everywhere in the Lamu archipelago. Traditional wooden trading dhows are still built in Lamu, the islands' capital on Lamu Island, and the doors on its aging mansions are encircled with shards of pottery that wash up on the beaches.

Ghazzal Harith Swaleh, the learned administrative officer of Lamu's Swahili history museum, is convinced that the pottery is from Zheng He's fleet—a ship or two caught in a storm and foundered on the shoals. Local legend has it that shipwrecked Ming sailors swam to Pate, he told me, "where they married local women." Their descendants are said to have "Chinese eyes" and "Chinese-sounding" tribal names such as Famao and Wei.

I had arranged to sail to Pate from Lamu, wading ashore in a deserted lagoon. The landing place was called Old Shanga, explained my guide. "You know, like ‘Shanghai.' That's what our Chinese ancestors named it, maybe after their hometown." The guide didn't look Chinese to me, nor did any of his fellow villagers in New Shanga, a collection of mud-walled huts nearby. The trip seemed to have accomplished nothing—until we reached a small clearing, deep in the jungle, where the guide pointed to a series of coral-stone structures draped in vines. "Our ancestors' graves," he said.

These burial places, with their half-moon domes and terraced entries, were virtually identical to the classic Ming tombs that dot hillsides above Chinese ports from which shipwrecked Treasure Fleet sailors might have hailed.

A strange melancholy seemed to hang over the clearing, and I was glad to begin the long trek back to the lagoon.


As the Treasure Fleet assembles in the autumn of 1431 at the Fujian harbor of Changle, Zheng He oversees the completion of another engraved pillar. Its inscription is a self-conscious statement for posterity. It is as though Zheng knows what lies ahead: history stands at a crossroads, and his own role in it is about to end. "[We] have recorded the years and months of the voyages to the barbarian countries," the admiral declares, "in order to leave [the memory] forever."

Zheng goes on to list the major landfalls in the previous six voyages, "altogether more than thirty countries large and small." He writes of his efforts "to manifest the transforming power of virtue and to treat distant people with kindness." He dreams, still, of a new world.

In the Chinese courtly tradition, the great admiral graces the pillar's inscription with a poetic flourish: "We have traversed more than one hundred thousand li [about 40,000 miles (64,374 kilometers)] of immense water spaces and have beheld in the ocean huge waves like mountains rising sky-high, and we have set eyes on barbarian regions far away hidden in a blue transparency of light vapors, while our sails loftily unfurled like clouds day and night."

http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/featu ... -he-text/6

Chinese-descended Kenyans

In a previous post, I mentioned the possibilities of a clan in East Africa with some Chinese ancestry. The Shange clan on the Pate island claim to have been descended from Chinese men who were shipwrecked there in the 15th century and settled, married local women and had children. While I am a bit fuzy on the details such as the name of this clan, I've come across Shanga and Famao though Shanga may be the name of the place where the Famao reside (???), it is certain that the clan's location which is the Pate Island is in modern-day Kenya.

Apparently the people of Pate are light-skinned and still look like Chinese despite it being 600 or so years since Zheng He's journeys. American journalist and New York Times correspondent Nicholas Kristof visited Pate in 1999 and there one village elder told him, "Many, many years ago, there was a ship from China that wrecked on the rocks off the coast near here...The Chinese were visitors, so we helped those Chinese men and gave them food and shelter.” The elder also told Kristof to visit the village of Shanga on another part of the island and it was there that Kristof met a man who looked Chinese. This man told him that he was of the Famao clan and that according to a legend, they were descended from Chinese after a Chinese ship wrecked on their shores. He explained that after the sailors of the damaged ship swan to the shore, they married local woman hence the Chinese-looking Famao. Another person told Kristof the Africans gave the Chinese some giraffes. I'm sure I'm not the only person who finds this telling, while someone may brush away these people's claim to Chinese ancestry, it is a fact that Africans were exporting giraffes (and other exotic animals such as zebras) to China.

Furthermore, the people in Shanga not only bury their dead in Chinese-style "turtle shell graves,” but also beat their drums to Chinese rhythms, speak a dialect with some Chinese words, they tell stories that are Chinese folklore and practice a form of basket weaving found in southern China. Interesting. Apparently there was also a thriving silk-making industry based uniquely in Pate until about half a century ago.

I came across this thread posted in a forum while searching for more information on the Shanga and Famao of Pate Islands. If you click on the link to the forum you really only need to read the first post.The original article being discussed has since been deleted but from the little information I got from reading that thread it was about the Famao people as well.

This legend speak of two Chinese ships from Zheng He's fleet hit rocks off the coast of Kenya. 20 or 100 Chinese men, the number varies, swam ashore and sought refuge with the people on Pate island. The people of the island gave the Chinese men two conditions, they could stay only if they were able to kill a big python that was terrorizing the people of the island and they would have to become Muslims. Luckily for the stranded sailors, one of them happened to be a master swordsman, he was able to lure the python out of the cave in which it resided and killed it. With this, the Chinese sailors settled, converted to Islam and married local woman. It seems that even today, one can find tombstones with Chinese inscription on the island.

A few young people from the island who claim to have Chinese ancestry have been given full scholarships by the Chinese government to study in Beijing. One of these young people is Mwamaka Sharifu from the Lamu Island.

Sharifu grew up hearing the legend of the stranded Chinese sailors from her grandmother. Sharifu said that in 2002 some Chinese experts came to her home and cut some of her mother's hair for DNA tests in China. When they returned, they told her mother that she was a Chinese descendant. On the Lamu island, it appears only Sharifu's family (of six individuals) remain with Chinese ancestry but on the Pate island, there are about 30 people believed to have descended from those sailors. Most of the articles on Sharifu are from 2005, if she's still in China that would mean she's spent 5 years over there. I wish there was a follow-up interview on her experiences there, Sharifu seemed to have a positive impression of China back in 2005 when she said (emphasis mine); "When I was in Kenya, I used to wear the scarf on my head. But now I keep it lower, because I think people here like to see me."

There's a podcast on BBC's African Perspective that runs for about 25 minutes and discuss this topic. Listen to the podcast, it even has interviewed with people from the clans mentioned above. I must say, it great that more attention is being paid to historical Sino-African relations. While most people were open to and receptive of my posts on this topic, I did get accused of making up things and fabricating history so it's nice to see that the facts are coming to light. While on the topic of "inventing history", people who actually believe that African history is no "valid" because it comes from oral traditions are idiots plain and simple.

Really haters gon hate, a few articles I've come across doubt Sharifu's claim of Chinese ancestry despite the fact that DNA tests are involved and both historical evidence and oral traditions point to high possibilities of this Chinese shipwreck. Oh well, Sharifu got to study abroad on a scholarship and will most likely end up using the skills she's gained to help her people so, in the end she wins.

http://blasiannarrative.blogspot.nl/201 ... nyans.html

Distant Ties to China?

On Pate Island along the Swahili coast of Kenya, the Mohame family pounds corn to make cornbread, a staple of their diet. The Mohameds are one of three families of the Famao clan who claim Chinese lineage. According to local legend, shipwrecked sailors from Zheng's fleet made it to shore and married local women, a belief that has become a central part of the Famao's personal mythology. Hints of past Chinese presence still exist on the island: Local tombs and lion statues have designs that some believe closely resemble those of the Ming era, and bits of Chinese ceramics that have washed ashore decorate the facades of some houses.

http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0 ... lery4.html

600 years of Chinese bloodline in Lamu

By Amos Kareithi

More than 600 years ago, survivors of a Chinese shipwreck found their way to the shores of the Indian Ocean in Kenya. Although historians have varying accounts of these events, there seems to finally be proof that some residents of Shanga Village in Lamu have Chinese blood.

The lonely old man seated at the beach has been reduced to watching birds soar high in the azure blue sky, occasionally diving into the inviting cool waters of the Indian Ocean, teasing the fisherman.

His gaze has been occasionally shifting to the boats berthing at the old dilapidated jetty. When his concentration wanes, he shakes his head wistfully, marvelling at the mysteries of nature.

Looking at the old dhows and the newer fibre boats as they come and leave the shores, Athuman Ali Famao temporary goes into a trance.

Oriental blood

He is transported into time when he too could ride the waves to distant lands just like the birds that come and go as they wish, unconcerned by territorial borders defining states and nations.

Although Famao is 60 years old and boasts of little acquaintance with conventional education, he is a repository of history.

Unlike many Kenyans who cannot trace their ancestry, Famao has a hint of where his ancestors came from 600 years ago.

Although he does not have yellow skin and squinted eyes, he has traces of oriental blood, which he attributes to an accident that occurred six centuries ago.

At around 1413, a Chinese navigator, Zheng He, of the Ming Dynasty (1368 to 1644) was on a journey with seven merchant ships on his way to the western part of Indian Ocean.

His fleet launched its voyages from Taicang City in East China's Jiangsu Province.

Idiolised Giraffe

Historians contend this was not the first such trip by a Chinese as historical records show that on a number of occasions, sailors from China had been on the same route during which they showered those they encountered with gifts.

The gifts, which included gold, porcelain and silk, are believed to have originated from the Chinese emperor. In return, the sailors took home ivory, myrrh, zebras and camels.

One of the most spectacular gifts Zheng took from Malindi was a giraffe, which was subjected to a six-months trip in 1417 to China and was ultimately presented to the king.

This story is validated by Esmond Bradely Martin in his book, Malindi, Past and Present, where he recounts how the giraffe won admiration and was at one time idolised as a god.

Martin retells the story of how the giraffe left Malindi in 1415, aboard one of the largest Chinese junks ever, to be subjected to a six-month journey and ceremoniously presented to the Ming Emperor, Yung Lo.

The giraffe, Martin writes, had been secured by Cheng Ho, a eunuch sailor who commanded a fleet of ship plying between Java, Ceylon, India and Hormuz when he happened to pass by Malindi during his fifth trip between 1417 and 1419.

However, it had to be repatriated to Kenya after a short stint owing to its inability to cope with severe climatic conditions.

Other accounts indicate that from 1405, Zheng made a total of seven journeys to South-East Asia, India, the Middle East and Africa, in fleets of up to 300 huge ships with nearly 30,000 sailors.


There are contradicting accounts about the giraffe gift with some theorising that the animal had been given out by the Sultan of Malindi, on Kenya's northern coast while others suggest that it was taken from the ruler of Bengal in India.

Controversies aside, the presence of giraffes is said to have somehow inspired Zheng to visit Kenya although historians seem to disagree on what came first, the giraffe or Zheng.

Although the passage of time has obliterated most of the details, there are no doubts that during one of his trips to East Africa, which some believe to have been in 1418, the unthinkable happened.

During this particular voyage, one of the ships, capsized in Shanga, Lamu and as fate would have it, the number of fatalities was quite high.

Afro-Chino race

According to reports by The Guardian, the sunken ship is believed to have been part of a mighty armada commanded by Zheng who reached Malindi in 1418.

A handful of sailors are also said to have survived the shipwreck and waded to the shore. There are myths to the effect that they had to prove their worth to the locals by killing a python before they could be accommodated in the village.

Only then were they allowed to marry the local beauties. The blossoming love marked the beginning of a new Afro-Chino race, which has survived six centuries.
Some experts from China have conducted some DNA tests on some of the residents in order to determine whether the residents of Shanga had Chinese blood.

Although Famao's claims, which are based on local folklore, may sound farfetched to a casual listener, the DNA tests seem to have validated them.

After these results, Shanga Village was electrified in 2005, when one of the local girls was proved to have Chinese genetics.

The results proved that the family of Baraka Badishee, whose descendants have distinct Asian features such as yellow skin and almond eyes, had some Chinese blood.

DNA tests

After the DNA tests, Mwanamaka Sharifa was granted a scholarship by the government of China to study traditional medicine, she has since completed her studies.

The government of China and the National Museums of Kenya have also embarked on a Sh200 million project to look for the sank ship.They hope it will produce the ultimate proof and solve the mystery of the Shanga Chinese village.

A group of Chinese and Kenyan underwater archaeologists hope that they will pinpoint the exact place the ship sank, off Pate Island. Their mission is to locate the shipwreck and try to re-float it in the hope that it will offer the missing link of what happened 600 years ago.

But even after all this is done, archaeologists and genetic experts have a tough assignment reconciling how the Chinese genes have for six hundred years survived racial intermarriage.

However, as experts try to figure out what happened to Zheng's ship, the residents of Shanga continue doing what their ancestors have always done.
Despite the strides made in technology, especially in marine, with dhows being replaced by motorised boats and ships, the Indian Ocean, which claimed Zheng's ship, is still as unpredictable as ever.

Famao recalls with nostalgia the 1980s when Somalia had a stable government and seafaring was unhindered by pirates. The Kenya Somalia border was open then.
He says: "I was getting Sh12,000 transporting lobsters, sugar and cooking flour. This is a job I had done for more than five years. Then I would travel to Tanzania, Unguja, Somalia in a sail boat as a captain."

Anarchy reigned

But all this stopped when he was involved in an accident after a rope broke as he was adjusting the sails. So strong was the impact that the backlash broke his hipbone.

"This is why I quit working as a boat captain as I was permanently maimed. Now I have resorted to fishing, which is relatively safer," Famao recalls.

When the tide changed in Somalia and anarchy reigned, Famao was among the first victims who fell into the hands of the pirates.

He explains: "I was once captured in Ndowa 1993 after my boat was hijacked. I was detained for 18 days and only released after paying the pirates about Sh100,000."

Later, Famao used his boat to transport scores of Somali refugees who were fleeing the mayhem in their country after the fall of Siad Barre.

Untameable waters

The disintegration of Somali into a state of lawlessness has affected Famao and many residents of Shanga as they cannot interact with their relatives.

"My grandfather was born in Shungwaya in Somali. One of my young wives, Mameini Mahadhi Ali is a Bajuni who was born in Somalia. Now I cannot visit my in-laws or some of my brothers who are in that country," he adds.

Despite the turbulence caused by the untameable waters of the Indian Ocean, life goes on for the descendants of the shipwrecked Chinese sailors washed ashore 600 years ago by the same waters.

Fumao no longer ventures into these waters even though a larger number of Chinese have been frequenting the area to recover their lost ship.

Some Chinese are also involved in the creation of a larger port in Lamu and this may result in more descendants arising from the renewed visit whose echoes will continue being heard in 2613.

http://www.jamiiforums.com/threads/600- ... mu.395007/
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Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 21 Şub 2017, 01:24

Turkana Tribe

The actual name "Turkana" is something of a mystery, with the most commonly ascribed meaning being a corruption of 'turkwen', which means 'cave people', or 'aturkan' which means 'cave land'.

As there are no caves in present-day Turkana-land (at least east of the Ugandan border), they must have migrated from elsewhere. This much is certain, as each of the nineteen sections of the Turkana agree that their recent origins lie to the west of their current homeland. The story, which has been carried down from mouth to mouth for many centuries, goes something like this:

"A long time ago, the common ancestors of the Turkana, the Jie and all the other 'Karamajong' tribes, lived in a place called Apuli, which was in southern Sudan or Ethiopia. Some 300 to 500 years ago, they began to migrate southwards to their present homeland in the far northeast of Uganda.

After a while, a group of young men from the Jie section of the Karamajong were sent eastwards into the Tarach Valley (west/northwest of Lodwar in Kenya) in search of a wayward ox, whose tracks they were following. They wandered far from their people, and finally met a solitary old Jie woman called Nayece who was gathering fruit. She led the young warriors into a lush and and verdant valley, unoccupied by people, which was rich in the wild berries which still form an important part of the Turkana diet.

The Turkana entered Turkana basin from the north as one unit of the Ateker confederation. The Ateker cluster split as a result of internal differences leading to emergence of distinct independent groups. Turkana people emerged as a victorious group. The victory of the Turkana people in the initial Ateker conflict led to enmity between Turkana people and other Ateker cluster groups. Ateker cluster groups formed military alliances against The Turkana. The Turkana emerged victorious again by co-opting young people from conquered groups. The military power and wealth of the Turkana increased in what is now the northern plains of Turkana.

The establishment of the Turkana people developed as a distinct group which expanded southwards conquering ethnic nations south of its borders. The Turkana people easily conquered groups it came in contact with by employing superior tactics of war, better weapons and military organization. By 1600s, the Turkana basin had been fully occupied by Turkana people and allied friendly groups.
There was a relative long period of peace among indigenous ethnic communities around Turkana until the onset of European colonization of Africa. Sporadic conflicts involved Turkana fights against Arab, swahili and Abyssinian slave raiders and ivory traders. European colonization brought a new dimension to conflict with Turkana putting up a lasting resistance to a complex enemy, the British. The Turkana put up and maintained active resistance to British colonial advances leading to a passive presence of colonial administration. By the outbreak of World War I, few parts of Turkana had been put under colonial

http://kwekudee-tripdownmemorylane.blog ... -semi.html

Kenya islands show footprint of Chinese expeditionary voyages

NAIROBI (Xinhua) -- Evidence of the Chinese expeditionary voyages to the East African coast in the 15th century keeps emerging, supported by some residents in coastal Kenya claiming to have Chinese roots and ancient Chinese artifacts unearthed in the region.

From 1405 to 1433, Chinese diplomat and navigator Zheng He commanded the Ming dynasty’s fleet of colossal trading ships to Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East and East Africa..
Chinese navigator Zheng He | Coastweek According to legends, two ships of the fleet were wrecked in the Indian Ocean and those who survived swam to the East African coast where locals embraced them.

Some 20 of them settled in Kenya’s Lamu Island where they later converted into Islam and married local women.

Six centuries later, residents believed to be the descendants of the Chinese sailors are visible in Lamu and other islands in the Kenyan coast.

http://www.coastweek.com/3828-Kenyan-is ... oyages.htm
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Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 21 Şub 2017, 01:25

1. 5th Century Hunnic Ancient Dna:

As for the ancient Hun from Hungary, dating back to the middle third of the V century, the type of burial and equipment showed that this young man belonged to Hun elite and perhaps was associated with the origin of the ancient Turkic tribes of Kazakhstan.

DNA analysis of ancient Hun skeleton identified Y-chromosome haplogroup L and mtDNA D4j12, which is evidence of the Asian origin of the paternal and maternal lines of ancient finds from Europe.

And, what is most interesting: his Y-chromosome type (L-haplogroup) was found in the Kazakh Argynov!

2. Botai Culture Ancient Dna:

The first thing we noticed on available for DNA analysis of artifacts representing the ancient settlement periods in Kazakhstan: a human skull from Botai settlement in northern Kazakhstan, the skeleton of the Hun period from the Natural History Museum (Budapest) and the remains of the so-called Urdzhar princess. As is known, in 2014 Urjar district of East Kazakhstan region in one of the mounds, caught up in road reconstruction zone Taskesken - Bhakti, neograblenoe burial women Saka time was found. Under the bulk of the mound in a stone sarcophagus contained the remains of a young woman of noble birth. Analysis of ancient DNA has shown that the age of discovery - III-IV century BC, and mtDNA haplogroup Urdzhar Princess - D4o. Haplogroup refers to the "Asian branch" that has left a mark in the Eastern Altai, Siberia, the Far North Eurasia and among Native Americans. Mother-founder of this haplogroup lived between 9300 - 18,400 years ago in North Asia.

Exploring skull botaytsa, we have established that it is a man, his mtDNA haplogroup - K1b2, which has the Eastern European origin and is very common in the modern population of Western Europe and America.

Мурат Уали
Казахстанский региональный ДНК-проект сначала был частью общемирового проекта The Genographic Project, а в последние несколько лет стал самостоятельным направлением этногеномики и палеогенетики. Применение в Казахстане методов ДНК-анализа для идентификации исторических личностей, для исследования древних захоронений, для проверки родовых шежере дало удивительные результаты

Лейла Джансугурова и отец палеогенетики Сванте Паабо

Генетический паспорт
Несколько лет назад, когда казахстанская инициативная группа начала компанию по сдаче ДНК-тестов казахами, я тоже выразил желание сдать тест. С членами инициативной группы Батыром Даулетом и Нурболом Баймуханом мы встретились в алматинском ресторане “Сохо”. Мне дали две специальные щеточки, которыми я потер за одной щекой, потом за другой, и две колбочки с моей ДНК ушли неведомыми мне путями в американскую компанию Family Tree DNA. Через несколько месяцев я получил результат. Как оказалось, моя Y-хромосома принадлежит гаплогруппе G1. Что это значит, рассмотрим ниже.
А пока напомним, что ДНК-анализ позволяет устанавливать точную степень родства разных людей и происхождение индивида от тех или иных исторических личностей. Последовательность нуклеотидов в составе ДНК для каждого конкретного человека строго индивидуальна и составляет его гаплотип, или “генетический паспорт”. Этот гаплотип так же, как отпечатки пальцев, можно использовать для безошибочной идентификации личности и для составления генеалогического древа (геногенеалогия). Такие возможности породили сеть коммерческих услуг по ДНК-генеалогии. Сдача тестов, получение своего “генетического паспорта” и составление геногенеалогии стали модным увлечением во всем мире. Любой человек за 100-600 долларов, сдав ДНК-тест и узнав свою гаплогруппу и свой гаплотип, может проследить путь своих предков от Y-хромосомного Адама и митохондриальной Евы до настоящего времени.

Идентификация Абулхаир хана
Известно, что белых пятен в казахской истории не меньше, чем черных дыр в астрономии. Скудость, а нередко и отсутствие собственных письменных источников не позволяют историкам раскрыть тайны множества белых пятен. В этих условиях возрастает роль междисциплинарного подхода к истории, о котором много говорится в последние годы. Ярким примером такого подхода была идентификация останков Абулхаир хана.
Начиная с 1998 года более десяти лет казахстанские ученые под руководством историка Серика Ажигали пытались разыскать могилу Абулхаир хана. Хотя и было известно, что она находится в Актюбинской области, в местности Хан моласы, но все точные ориентиры в советское время были утрачены. В результате многолетних поисков историков и археологов, а также почвоведов, палеоботаников, этнографов, из сотен захоронений некрополя Хан моласы были выделены три могильника, которые больше всего подходили под описание места захоронения Абулхаир хана, известное по письменным источникам. Но дальше дело зашло в тупик. В котором из трех могильников останки казахского хана? Тогда за дело взялись казахстанские биологи из Института общей генетики и цитологии. Директор института, кандидат биологических наук Лейла Джансугурова рассказывает:
- Сначала мы взяли ДНК-тесты у живых потомков Абулхаир хана. Затем были выделены ДНК из костных остатков из трех могильников. Сравнение и анализ образцов и многочисленные контрольные тесты показали, что только ДНК объекта № 92 соответствует ДНК потомков хана. Затем к исследованиям приступили антропологи - сотрудники Будапештского музея естественной истории под руководством Андроша Биро. Они восстановили по черепу реальный облик казахского хана, и также подтвердили, что останки объекта № 92 по схожести возраста, роста, строения тела соответствуют описаниям Абулхаир хана. При перезахоронении останков хана в могильнике были обнаружены остатки дерева - того самого точного ориентира, которым была известна ранее могила хана. В 2015 году в Актобе была проведена научная конференция по результатам идентификации казахского хана, а в некрополе Хан моласы на месте захоронения хана возведены грандиозная стела-памятник и мазар Абулхаир хана.

Абулхаир и Урджарская принцесса

Палеогенетика в Казахстане
- Этот успешный опыт совместного междисциплинарного исследования генетиками и историками имел продолжение?
- Да. Более того, на базе нашего Института общей генетики и цитологии при сотрудничестве с Институтом археологии имени А.Х. Маргулана в 2014 году создана лаборатория популяционной генетики. Ее цель - изучение генетической структуры современного населения Казахстана и определение генетических взаимосвязей с древними кочевыми племенами Центральной Азии. Для начала мы составили каталог имеющихся в Казахстане древних человеческих костных останков и ценных археологических находок, имеющих отношение к этногенезу казахов и доступных для палеогенетических исследований.
- Каковы же достижения в казахстанской палеогенетике?
- Хочу отметить, что ДНК-анализ костных остатков из древних захоронений очень сложный и дорогостоящий метод. Он требует высокотехнологичного оборудования, суперстерильности эксперимента и квалификации персонала. Поэтому отбор костного материала имеет очень важное значение. Первым делом мы обратили внимание на доступные для ДНК-анализа артефакты, представляющие древние периоды заселения территории Казахстана: это череп человека из поселения Ботай в Северном Казахстане, скелет гуннского периода из Музея естественной истории (г. Будапешт) и останки так называемой Урджарской принцессы. Как известно, в 2014 году в Урджарском районе Восточно-Казахстанской области в одном из курганов, оказавшихся в зоне реконструкции автодороги Таскескен - Бакты, было найдено неограбленое погребение женщины сакского времени. Под насыпью кургана в каменном саркофаге находились останки молодой женщины знатного происхождения. Анализ древней ДНК показал, что возраст находки - III-IV век до н.э., а гаплогруппа мтДНК Урджарской принцессы - D4o. Гаплогруппа относится к “азиатской ветке”, оставившей широкий след в Восточном Алтае, Сибири, Крайнем Севере Евразии и среди коренного населения Америки. Мать-основательница этой гаплогруппы жила между 9300 - 18 400 годами назад в Северной Азии.
Что касается древнего гунна из Венгрии, датированного средней третью V века, то тип захоронения и его экипировка свидетельствовали, что этот молодой человек принадлежал к гуннской элите и, возможно, был связан происхождением с древними тюркскими племенами из Казахстана. Анализ ДНК древнего гуннского скелета определил гаплогруппу L Y-хромосомы и D4j12 мтДНК, что является свидетельством азиатского происхождения отцовской и материнской линий древней находки из Европы. И, что самое интересное: его тип Y-хромосомы (L-гаплогруппа) был найден у казахских аргынов!
Исследуя череп ботайца, мы установили, что это мужчина, его гаплогруппа мтДНК - K1b2, которая имеет восточно-европейское происхождение и весьма распространена у современного населения Западной Европы и Америки.
- Самое интересное - его Y-хромосома.
- К сожалению, гаплогруппу по Y-хромосоме мы не успели установить. У нас кончились дорогостоящие реактивы и деньги, выделенные на исследования. Кроме того, у нас собран генетический банк, представляющий современное население Казахстана - 1524 человека с подробными шежере, поэтому этническую картину современности мы можем сравнивать с древними находками. Над этим мы будем работать дальше.

Шежере и ДНК-анализ
Мы беседуем с Жаксылыком Сабитовым - PhD (доктор политологии), доцентом Евразийского университета имени Гумилева. Несмотря на то, что Жаксылык чистый гуманитарий, он разбирается в премудростях этногеномики, в аллелях, локусах, гаплогруппах, гаплотипах и прочих тонкостях ДНК-анализа. На эту тему им написано более 70 научных статей.
- Жаксылык, как начинался казахстанский ДНК-проект?
- Его инициатором в 2007 году стал биолог Ерлан Туруспеков, который тогда находился на стажировке в США. Вот он и внес идею проверки казахских шежере с помощью генетических методов. По инициативе Олега Халидулина на его сайте http://www.elim.kz началась кампания по сбору ДНК-анализов. Дело было незнакомое и шло очень туго. Редкие казахи могли и готовы были тратить 100-120 долларов на непонятные анализы. На сбор первых ста тестов ушло почти три года. Это было очень мало и не могло быть репрезентативной выборкой для анализа.
- Как же удалось добиться репрезентативности выборок?
- Сначала я в качестве волонтера собирал тесты казахов для Genographic Project. Российские кураторы проекта биологи Олег и Елена Балановские инициировали параллельное расширенное изучение генофонда североевразийских народов. И вот под их руководством в течение нескольких лет мы вместе с биологом Максатом Жабагиным ездили в экспедиции и собирали ДНК-тесты у центральноазиатских народов, в том числе у казахов. За несколько лет мы собрали 1470 образцов ДНК казахов с фиксацией родоплеменного происхождения. Потом свою программу генетических исследований начал проводить Назарбаев университет, с 2013 года стал действовать казахстанский коммерческий проект Shejire DNA под руководством Нурбола Баймухана. В итоге на данный момент имеется научная база в 2700 гаплотипов казахов из разных родов, племен и жузов. Причем при тестировании казахов запись рода-племени имеет принципиальное значение. Вот при анализе этих гаплотипов и сравнении их с шежере соответствующего рода нас ждало открытие.
- Это интересно. Расскажите про открытие.
- У казахов очень сильны родоплеменные традиции и развито знание своего шежере. Шежере составляется по мужской линии, и каждый подрод и род имеет своего предка на соответствующем уровне, а в составе племени - общего легендарного отца-основателя. Было очень соблазнительно сопоставить родовое шежере с анализом маркеров Y-хромосомы членов одного рода. Раньше я, как историк, относился скептически к именам легендарных предков. Все-таки это устная традиция, и в процессе передачи от поколения к поколению неизбежны ошибки, пропуски, искажения, какие-то моменты могли быть придуманы. Все это так, но тем не менее оказалось, что генетические данные в целом подтверждают шежере. Мы протестировали большинство крупных казахских племен: аргынов, найманов, алшинов, адаев, кипчаков, кереев, табынов, большинство племен Улы жуза. ДНК-анализ Y-хромосомы показывает, что члены одного рода-племени имеют в основном одну доминирующую гаплогруппу и схожие гаплотипы. Их генетические линии сходятся в 20-25-м поколении на одном предке, который жил около 500-1000 лет назад. И это был реальный человек! Чаще всего это известные по историческим данным эмиры золотоордынских ханов, жившие в XIII - XV веках. Но есть и исключения, когда возраст предка указывает на домонгольскую эпоху, как, например, у коныратов и уйсуней, или на начальный период Казахского ханства. Результаты ДНК-анализа во многом совпадают с данными родоплеменных шежере. В то же время они позволяют очертить границы достоверности шежере каждого отдельно взятого рода. Открытие в том и состоит, что казахские шежере, несмотря на устный характер, являются достоверным историческим источником, а легендарные родоначальники большинства племен - реальные исторические лица.

Где была Аргынтина
Одним из белых пятен казахской родоплеменной структуры является происхождение крупнейшего племени аргынов. Существует множество взаимоисключающих версий.
- А что же говорит ДНК-анализ про локализацию Аргынтины?
- Мы насчитали 11 версий о происхождении аргынов. В основном они соотносятся с географическими топонимами в Монголии, на Дальнем Востоке, на Северном Кавказе или с историческим персонажем Аргуном из государства Хулагуидов. Однако тестирование аргынов выявило поразительный факт - около 80 процентов протестированных представителей рода аргын принадлежат к гаплогруппе G1. Дело в том, что, по известным ранее генетическим данным, происхождение данной гаплогруппы связано с популяцией, населявшей Северный Иран около пяти тысяч лет назад (до прихода туда древних персов). Из этого факта вытекает вывод, что прародина аргынов не может быть ни в Монголии, ни на Кавказе. Предки аргынов пришли на территорию Казахстана не ранее 3000 лет назад с территории Северного Ирана - Афганистана. Кроме данных ДНК-анализов исторические данные также косвенно указывают на племена аргу как местных жителей Южного Казахстана эпохи Караханидов (это X век). Возможно, подчеркиваю, возможно, это отюреченные карлуками согдийцы. Безусловно, эта версия требует дальнейшей экспериментальной проверки.
- Интересно, что, по данным древней Авесты, предки иранцев жили на территории Казахстана. Если предки аргынов жили на территории Ирана, то получается, что они поменялись местами и мигрировали в современные ареалы обитания.
- Возможно и так. Целенаправленное ДНК-тестирование жителей Северо-Восточного Ирана, Таджикистана, Туркмении позволит внести ясность в проблему миграции древних племен с гаплогруппой G1. Это дело ближайшего будущего. Но пока все линии казахских аргынов стягиваются в XIV век к их родоначальнику, которого можно сопоставить с легендарным Акжол бием. Его сын Караходжа - вполне историческая личность, упоминаемая во многих средневековых письменных источниках. Он был эмиром при Тохтамыш хане.
- Каковы другие результаты нашего ДНК-проекта?
- Результатов много. О каждом племени у меня выходила отдельная статья. Их можно найти в интернете.
- Попробуйте быть предельно кратким.
- Например, сравнивая гаплотипы адайцев, мы вычислили их родоначальника. Им был человек по имени Адай, который реально существовал и жил примерно в 1470-е годы. Можно упомянуть алшинов Киши жуза. Они разделяются на два племени - алимулы и байулы. Но их гаплотипы говорят о том, что это единое племя, ведущее происхождение от одного родоначальника. По моему мнению, он происходит от алчи-татар, которые упоминаются в Сокровенном сказании монголов как противники Чингисхана. А вот большинство племен Улы жуза происходят как раз от монгольских нирунов - родственников Чингисхана.

Все мы немного родственники
Итак, получается, что казахские племена по мужской линии (по Y-хромосоме) имеют разное происхождение. То есть у казахов как у народа общего предка нет. Это говорит о том, что как народ казахи сложились из разных тюркских, сибирских, арийских и монгольских племен. Но при этом они представляют собой самостоятельно сложившуюся и внутренне единую общность. Как говорит Нурбол Баймухан: “Нельзя абсолютизировать маркеры Y-хромосомы. ДНК-анализ по более общим аутосомным маркерам показывает, что казахи очень гомогенный народ, очень тесно связаны и близки друг с другом. При этом у всех казахов примерно одинаковое соотношение генетических маркеров: 36 процентов представлено маркерами из Сибири, 26 процентов - это Юго-Восточная Азия, 22 процента - Европа, 16 процентов - Ближний Восток”.
Получается, как в анекдоте - все казахи друг другу родственники. Но эта всеобщая родственность не по мужской линии, а по материнской. По отцовской линии родственники только члены одного рода и племени.
Ну а если вспомнить кроманьонцев Мамонтовой степи из предыдущей статьи, то получится, что все мы в Евразии немного родственники.

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