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The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Burada Haplogroup T'nin Türkiye-Türkistan Karşılaştırması yapılıyor ve haplogrubun Türk Kökeni kanıtlanıyor.

The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 06 May 2015, 07:28

The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

The highest frequency of haplogroup T is found among the Kazakh Turks, the Dravidians, the Antemoro and maybe also among the Dire Dawa Somalis.

S. Sahoo / R. Trivedi(2006), finds 52.6%(10/19) and 55.6%(10/18) of haplogroup T among the Kurru and Bauris tribes of the Dravidians who live in India.

M. A. Gubina et al 2013 finds 38,8%(19/49) of haplogroup K*(xL,N,O,P) among Kosh-Agach tribes of the Kazakh Turks who live in the Altai Republic. Earlier studies(Dulik et al 2011) showed a T1a result among the Kazakh Turks in one location of the South Western region of the Altai Republic. On the contrary K*(xL,N,O,P,T) results were not found. So, it is safe to define the K*(xL,N,O,P) results as T.

According to a research in 2010, the total number of the population of the Altai Republic is "206.168". Kazakh Turks consist only of 6.2% of the total population number. The total number of the Kazakh group in the Altai Republic is equal to only 12.782.

The T1a found at Dulik et al 2011, is from the South West region(Ust-Koksa District: Cherny Anuy, Turata) of the Altai Republic. The K*(xL,N,O,P) found at M. A. Gubina et al 2013, is from the South East region(Kosh-Agach District: Kosh-Agach). So, it is a fact that the T members of Altaian Kazakh Turks live in the South Region of the Altai Republic.

The samples from Dulik et al 2011 are a part of the larger MT-DNA sample set of Gökçümen et al 2008. Dulik et al 2011 has 30 Y-DNA samples from the South West region(Ust-Koksa District: Cherny Anuy, Turata), and has 89 Y-DNA samples from the South East region(Kosh-Agach District: Kosh-Agach, Zhan Aul). From the 89 South East region samples there were only 5.6% of West Eurasian Y-DNA haplogroups. There were 128 Zhan Aul samples and 45 Kosh-Agach samples in the Gökçümen et al 2008 study. The number of the Zhan Aul samples is almost 3 times higher than the Kosh-Agach sample number. Also, the West Eurasian Y-DNA haplogroups frequency among the 128 Zhan Aul samples was 30.7%, while the West Eurasian Y-DNA haplogroups frequency among the 45 Kosh-Agach samples was 39.9%. This shows that the marjority of the 89 Y-DNA samples from the South East region of the Dulik et al 2011 study, where from the 128 samples of the Zhan-Aul village, where the East Asian MT-DNA haplogroup frequency was higher, and the minority of the 89 Y-DNA samples belonged to a little part of the 45 Kosh-Agach samples. The 5.6% of West Eurasian Y-DNA haplogroups in the Dulik et al 2011 study must be from this minority part.

The population number of the sum of the "Kosh-Agach" and Ust-Koksa Districts is 35.283. 6% of 35.283 is "2.117", so there are in total 2117 Kazakhs within South Altai Republic.

Within the "Low-resolution haplogroup classification" table of Dulik et al 2011, an analysis is made in which the "K*(xN1c,O,P)" notation is made equal to the haplogroup T1a-M70. It means that Dulik et al 2011 accidentally confirms the fact that the K*(xL,N,O,P) results at M. A. Gubina et al 2013 could belong to T.

If we know that during an earlier study, haplogroup T1a is found among this little but important group of 2.117 Kazakh Turks in the South of Altai Republic, then it should be safe to equal these 38,8%(19/49) of K*(xL,N,O,P) results to T.

The MT-DNA and/or Y-DNA results of 5 different genetic studies about the Kazakhs in the Altai Republic.

To summarize, the MT-DNA study results of the Kazakhs of several locations from the Kosh-Agach region(South Western region), show the following West Eurasian MT-DNA haplogroup frequncies: 39,5%, 39,9%, 38,7%, 30,7%. The Y-DNA results in the Gubina et al 2013 study, show a total West Eurasian Y-DNA haplogroup frequncy of 51,0%. 38,8% of the total West Eurasian 51,0%, belongs to K*(xL,N,O,P,T), the rest belongs to J2(6,1%) and R1a1(6,1%). From earlier determinations, it is known that some of the West Eurasian male(Y-DNA) lines could have East Eurasian female(MT-DNA) lines. So, the 11,1% difference(51,0% - 39,9%) could mean that 11,1% of the West Eurasian male lines, have East Eurasian female lines.

The Haak et al 2015 ancient dna study finds the Y-DNA haplogroup T1a(together with G2a) among the ancient Linearbandkeramik samples, in combination with the MT-DNA haplogroup H1. As we can see, MT-DNA haplogroup H has the highest West Eurasian frequency at the 5 different studies about modern Altai Republic Kazakhs with frequencies like 17,5%, 15,6%, 13,3%, 13,1%, 13,0%, 10,0%, 7,8%. Also other MT-DNA haplogroups like K, N1a, T2, U, U5, X, that are found among several ancient LBK persons are also found among the modern Altai Republic Kazakh samples.

Gubina 2013, MT-DNA

Kosh Agach(South East of Altai Republic), Sample Number: 145

East Eurasian


D: 24,2%
A: 6,3%
B: 6,2%
N9: 6,2%
C: 5,6%
G: 4,2%
M: 4,2% => M, M7b
F: 3,5%
Y: 0,7%

Total: 61,1%

West Eurasian


H: 13,1%
U: 10,5% => U(0,7%), U1b(0,7%), U3(1,4%), U4(0,7%), U5(5,6%), U7(1,4%)
T2a: 4,8%
pre K: 3,5%
I: 3,4%
N1a: 2,1%
R: 1,4%
J: 0,7%

Total: 39,5%


Gubina 2013, Y-DNA

East Eurasian

C3c: 40,8%
D: 4,1%
N: 4,1%

Toplam: 49,0%

West Eurasian


K*: 38,8%
J2: 6,1%
R1a1: 6,1%

Toplam: 51,0%


Derenko 2012, MT-DNA

Different localities of Kosh Agach(South East of Altai Republic), Sample Number: 98

East Eurasian


D4+D5: 26,5%
C4: 8,2%
M7+M9a: 6,1%
F1: 5,1%
A4: 3,1%
B4+B5: 4,1%
G2+G3: 2,0%
N9a: 2,0%
Z: 2,0%
Y1: 1,0%

TOTAL: 60,1%

West Eurasian


H(3x H*, 3x H1*, 1x H11a2, 1x H15b, 4x H2a1, 1x H5*): 13,3%
U(1x U2e1*, 1xU3, 4x U4a2a, 2x U5b): 8,1%
J(3xJ1b1a1, 2xJ2a2): 5,1%
T(2x T*, 2x T1a): 4,0%
HV(3x HV12): 3,1%
I(2x I*, 1x I2): 3,1%
K(2xK*): 2,0%
N(1xN1a1a1a): 1,0%
R(1xR2*): 1,0%

TOTAL: 38,7%


Gokcumen 2008, MT-DNA

Kosh Agach(South East of Altai Republic), Sample Number: 45

East Eurasian


D: 13,3% => D(11,1%), D5(2,2%)
C: 8,9%
G: 8,8% => G2(4,4%), G4(4,4%)
A: 6,7% =>
M: 6,6% => M(2,2%), M13(2,2%), M8a(2,2%)
Z: 2,2%
B: 4,4% => B4(2,2%), B5(2,2%)
F1: 4,4%
Y1: 2,2%

TOTAL: 57,5%

West Eurasian


H: 15,6%
U: 8,9%
I: 4,4%
T: 4,4%
J: 4,4%
N1a: 2,2%

TOTAL: 39,9%


Gokcumen 2008, MT-DNA

Zhan-Aul village, Kosh-Agach district (South East of Altai Republic), Sample Number: 128

East Eurasian


D: 24,2% => D(21,1), D5(3,1)
B: 14,1% => B4(7,8), B5(6,3)
G: 7,1% => G(1,6), G2(3,9), G4(1,6)
F: 7,0% => F1
M: 6,3% => M(3,1), M7(1,6), M9a(0,8), M13(0,8)
C: 5,5%
A: 3,9%
N9a: 3,1%

TOTAL: 71,2%

West Eurasian


U: 10,2% => U(4,7), U3(0,8), U4(1,6), U5(3,1)
H: 7,8%
N: 5,5% => N1a(4,7), N1b(0,8)
T: 1,6%
I: 1,6%
K: 1,6%
W: 0,8%
J: 0,8%
HV: 0,8%

TOTAL: 30,7%


Gokcumen 2008, MT-DNA

Cherny Anuy and Turata(South West of Altai Republic), Sample Number: 54

East Eurasian


C: 16,7%
G2: 16,7%
F1: 9,3%
D: 5,6%
B: 3,8% => B4(1,9), B5(1,9)
M: 3,7%
A: 3,7%
Y1: 1,9%

TOTAL: 61,4%

West Eurasian


H: 13,0%
R: 13,0%
J: 5,6%
U: 5,6% => U1(4,7), U4(1,9)
I: 1,9%

TOTAL: 39,1%


Gokcumen 2008, MT-DNA

Northern Altai Republic, Sample Number: 10

East Eurasian


C: 50%
D: 10%
F2: 10%

TOTAL: 70%

West Eurasian


H: 10%
U5: 10%
J: 10%

TOTAL: 30%


Gokcumen 2004, MT-DNA

Southern Altai Republic, Sample Number: 177

East Eurasian


C: 15,8%
D: 9,0%
M*: 6,2%
G: 5,6%
F: 4,0%
A: 2,3%
B: 1,7%

TOTAL: 44,6%

West Eurasian


H: 17,5%
J: 6,8%
U: 6,2%
T: 1,7%
I: 1,7%
X: 0,6%
K: 0,6%

TOTAL: 35,1%


Dulik 2011, Y-DNA

South Western Altai Republic(one location), Sample Number: 30

East Eurasian


C3+C3c: 56,6%
O3a3c: 3,3%
Q1a3: 3,3%

TOTAL: 63,2%

West Eurasian


G1+G2a: 16,7%
R1a1+R1b1b1: 13,3%
T: 3,3%
J2a: 3,3%

TOTAL: 36,6%



South Eastern Altai Republic(three locations), Sample Number: 89

East Eurasian


C3+C3c: 60,6%
O3a3c: 33,7%

TOTAL: 94,3%

West Eurasian


J2a: 4,5%
G1: 1,1%

TOTAL: 6,6%


Gökçümen et al 2008:

Altaian Kazakhs had higher frequencies of HV, T, U, and Z mtDNAs than the other two Kazakh groups, who had generally higher frequencies of West Eurasian lineages, not to mention that only Altaian Kazakhs had N1a haplotypes.

Furthermore, as indicated above, Altaian Kazakhs simply had more haplogroups present in their mtDNA gene pool compared to the groups from Kazakhstan and Xinjiang.

These differences again implied that the population history of the Altaian Kazakhs was somewhat distinctive from those of the other two Kazakh groups.

The population history of the Altaian Kazakhs is complex, as seen in their diverse mtDNA composition. The specific combination of haplogroups and haplotypes within the Altaian Kazakh population distinguishes it from that seen in the linguistically related Kazakhs to the west and south (Xinjiang), and their geographical neighbors, indigenous Altaians.


Dulik et al 2011:

The observed differences between Altaian Kazakhs and indigenous Kazakhs were not the result of admixture between Altaian Kazakhs and indigenous Altaians

The more diverse set of haplogroups in the SW Altaian Kazakhs may point to a different population history for this location or perhaps its relative isolation from the greater Kazakh population.

However, the NRY results showed no recognizable admixture between Kazakhs and Russians. The most frequent haplogroups present in southern Russia belong to R1a, N1c and I1b [9]. Although a single R1a1a* lineage appeared in Altaian Kazakhs, it was very similar to ones seen in the indigenous Altai-kizhi (unpublished data). In addition, N1c and I1b were not found in any Kazakh populations.


M. Capredon finds 55,0%(22/40) of haplogroup T among the Anteony tribe of the Antemoro who live in Madagascar. In the same study, haplogroup O(O2a1) is found with 5%(2/40) among the Anteony tribe of the Antemoro, and among the Antalaotra tribe of the Antemoro haplogroup O(O2a1, O1a2) is found with 44,2%(19/43). We should also mention the fact that R1a1 is found among the Antalaotra tribe with 2,3%(1/43), and T is found with 9,3%(4/43), which shows that the members of these R1a1 and T results relate with each other, just like R1b relates with T in a couple of African tribes.

C. A. Plaster finds 82.4%(14/17) of haplogroup K*(xL,N1c,O2b,P) among the Dire Dawa tribe of the Somalis who live in Ethiopia. The complete sample size of the study is 5756, with members of tens of tribes that participated. Frequency of Haplogroup K*(xL,N1c,O2b,P) was only found among the Darood(19/83 = 22,9%) and Dire Dawa tribes of the Somalis, in all other tribes it was found with lower than 3,4%. The analysis and prediction of the Y-STR haplotypes of the 14/17 K*(xL,N1c,O2b,P) results among the Dire Dawa, showed that they could belong to haplogroups like N(xN1c), O2a1, O1a2, T. In the same study, 10 out of the 377 Ethiopians were first defined as K*(xL,N1c,O2b,P), and after the genotyping of some additional markers(including the marker of T), 5 of the 377 Ethiopians belonged to T, and 5 belonged to K*(xL,N1c,O2b,P,T). Knowing that T and O2a1, O1a2 were found with frequencies like 55,0%(22/40) and 44,2%(19/43) among the Antemoro, shows that approximately the half of the 14/17 K*(xL,N1c,O2b,P) results among the Dire Dawa tribe should belong to T and O. We could predict that the results of these T and O could be like 38% T, 38% O2a/O1a and 6% N(xN1c).

The fact that O and T are found together in the previous examples shows that the origin of these results lie between East Asia and India, which is equal to the regions in Central Asia from the Altai Republic to the Turkmenistan countries. This shows that members of Altaian Kazakh Turks are the root of haplogroup T. The highest sample set also belongs to the study of M. A. Gubina, with 49 samples. The M. Capredon study sample size was 40, so if this 40 increases to 49, the T results should be approximately equally as the T in the M. A. Gubina study. The sample size of R. Trivedi and C. A. Plaster was 17, 18 and 19 which is lower than halve of the sample size of M. A. Gubina.

P. Kusuma finds 7,4% of haplogroup T among the Bajo tribes in Indonesia. The languages spoken by the Antemoro tribes in Madagascar(Malagasy) and the Bajo tribes(Bajau/Sinama) in Indonesia are of the same Barito language origin, which shows that the T members of Madagascar and Indonesia should have originated and migrated from the Dravidians in India. Migration occured from India to Indonesia, and from here to Madagascar. At this point we should note the fact that Madagascar is very close to Somalia and Ethiopia, which shows that the Somalian T members are associated with the T members in Madagascar. Both migrated from India.

It is a fact, that the Dravidians language is related and is very similar to the Ural-Altaic languages. In fact there are many linguistic academicians that proof the similarities between the modern Turk language and the Dravidian language. Both, the Turk and Dravidian languages are directly originated from the Sumerian language, which is also a Proto Turk language. In the historical records it is mentioned that the origin of the Dravidians was in the Central Asian regions, and that they migrated from Central Asia to the Indian regions. This shows again that the Altaian Kazakh Turks are the root of all T members.

The body of ancient Ötzi(3300 BCE, Italy) contained tattoos which were equal to the Proto Turk stamps, which are directly associated with the language and alphabets of the earlier Neolithic Sumerians. The fact that Ötzi belonged to haplogroup G, and the fact that in the earlier Neolithic Linearbandkeramik(LBK) culture the Haplogroups C, G and T are found together at Early Neolithic European regions shows that the ancestors of the LBK members of haplogroup T migrated from Central/East Asian regions, through the North of Crimea and through the Middle East, until the Western regions of Europe. This migration route is partially equal to the Sumerians that migrated from Central Asia until the Middle East regions. So the Early Neolithic/Mesolithic Proto Turk ancestors of the Sumerians that are called Kengers/Kangars migrated from Central Asia to the Middle East and North of Crimea, from these regions migrations to European regions occured, and eventually after thousands of years a back migration occured to Central Asia. The fact that the Kengers/Kangars were a fundamental tribe of the Oghur Huns and the later Turks, shows that the the T results in M. A. Gubina among the Altaian Kazakh Turks form the root of Haplogroup T. The finding of very high frequencies(as high as 86,7%) of haplogroup G1 and G2a among many Kazakh tribes from Kazakhstan and Altai regions, shows that the haplogroups G and T that were found together among the ancient Early Neolithic LBK graves, are essential in many modern Kazakh Turk tribes and are associated with the Proto Turk tribes like the Sumerians and the LBK members of Europe. To give a better illustration of the determinations, i created a diagram, which will help understanding the origin of haplogroup T.

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Zerjal et. al. 2002 finds 13.2%(5/38) of haplogroup K*(xL,N,O1,O3c,P) among the Kazakh Turks.

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Balanovsky et. al. 2010, Genofond.ru finds 1.1%(1/95) of haplogroup T among the Kazakh Turks.

Shou et. al. 2010 finds 2.4%(1/41) of haplogroup K*(xN,O,P) among the Kazakh Turks.

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Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 06 May 2015, 14:05

Madagascar and the Maritime Silk Road between China and Madagascar

The Republic of Madagascar is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the southeastern coast of Africa. It was a very important stop along ancient maritime trading routes.

And based on pottery and porcelain relics found in the country, archaeologists at Antananaviro University believe that China and Madagascar had contact in ancient times. The archaeologists say they hope to cooperate with their Chinese counterparts in the future to find out more about the two countries’ ancient relations.

Antananaviro University’s archaeology research lab, houses a large amount of ancient pottery works and porcelain pieces. According to the archaeologists, all of them came from China in the distant past.
Chantal, director of Dep. of Archaeology, Antananarivo Univ., said, "China and Madagascar established trade links as early as in the 10th century. Goods from China, mainly pottery and porcelain, were transported to Arab countries through the ancient Silk Road, and then to the Africa."

Chantal said she and her colleagues at the Department of Archaeology hope to cooperate with their Chinese counterparts in the future, to get a better understanding of how these Chinese relics made lt all the way to Africa.

Chantal said, "We have very little contact with Chinese archaeologists, who we believe have the knowledge and experience that can help us do the research. Maybe in the future we can reach out to each other and help each other, academically."

Many experts in China hold the view that communication and exchanges between China and African countries started in the 15th century, when the renowned explorer Zheng He commanded voyages to Southeast Asia, the Middle East and tbe coast of Africa. But according to the relics excavated in Madagascar and the research conducted by archaeologists at Antananaviro University, those contacts may started even earlier. Hopefully further cooperation in the future will help prove that.

Zheng He, Haplogroup L1a, and Mutation LT-L298/P326 that is Ancestor of L and T

Between the years 1400 - 1500 AD, the modern family descendants of Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar and later Zheng He(great grandson of Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar), who lived in the Yuan state, belonged to the Y-DNA haplogroup L1a. Again, according to the academicians that are in fact Chinese and USA CIA intelligence agents, Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar was of Persian origin, however the fact is that this not logical conclusion is a big LIE! Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar is of Turkish ethnic origin. At the source named "Jāmiʻat al-Malik ʻAbd al-ʻAzīz. Maʻhad Shuʻūn al Aqallīyat al-Muslimah" it is clearly mentioned that Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar is of Turkish ethnic origin. You all know that between the 11th and 13th centuries AD, Uzbekistan-Bukhara was ruled by the Turkish state of the Khwarazm Shahs that were of Turkish ethnic origin. Because of the by the strengthening of the Selcukid and Mongol states, the state of the Khwarazm Shahs is falling down, and because of this the family with Turkish ethnic origin of Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar becomes a state official of the empire of Genghis Khan. And also, it is already a fact that the family trees of Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar shows that his family settled into China within the Song dynasty(960 - 1279 AD). And this shows, that during the handover(transition) period between the Khwarazm Shah and the Mongol states, his family settled into the lands of the Mongol empire(China is part of the Mongol empire). While this whole subject is that simple, it is very worrisome to see that the Chinese and Germanic academicians which have hate crime feelings(against Turks) in their hearths, are on purpose making such conclusions that are not in accordance with the science and logics. Whe should be cautious about these hate crame activities and these are situations in which it is necessary to take some measures. The fact that the Europoid(West Eurasian) Y-DNA haplogroup L1a is found within such a deep-rooted Turkish family, shows again that during the Proto Turk, Sakha, Hun and Gök Türk periods these type of Europoid Y-DNA haplogroups could be found, in future ancient dna studies.

According to the Chinese sources, the ancestors of Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar and later Zheng He were Turks who lived in Xinjiang(probably around the Altai regions) and Central Asia(between China and Uzbekistan-Turkmenistan). The fact that Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar and later Zheng He belonged to Haplogroup L1a, and the fact that 38,8% of T is found among Altaian Kazakh Turks, shows that L and T should be found among ancient Turk graves. The Turks that were related to Zheng He(his crew), could have brought the T into the regions of Somalia, India and Indonesia, during his voyages. Also, not to forget the fact that the Ottoman Turks ruled Somalia for a long time from the 16th century.
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Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 07 May 2015, 00:07

Hongyang Xu(2014) found 27,3%(3/11) of Haplogroup T among the Quechua tribe of the Natives of Peru.

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Gaya-Vidal(2011) found 1,8%(1/55) of Haplogroup T among a Quechua tribe of the Natives of Bolivia.

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Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 07 May 2015, 00:39

At the preview paper of the unpublished study of Kim Kijeong from the Korean Chung Ang University, among the 85 Ancient Mongolian results, 3 belonged to the haplogroup K-R, which is most probably equal to the haplogroup K(xN,O,P), and could belong to the haplogroups K*, L or T. However, the Korean study was finished at 2007. The actual sample size of ancient Mongolian and ancient Uzbekistan graves is equal to 585 and 450. It is very remarkable to see that they did not yet publish the results of their study, they dont even plan to publish. What i can see, is that the haplogroups L and T will be found in the Eurasian regions that are located at the West of Mongolia, beginning from West Mongolia until the Turkmenistan area.

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Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 07 May 2015, 01:21

M. Eaaswarkhanth(2009) finds 28%(7/25) of haplogroup K*(xL,M,N,O,P) among the Iranian Shia Muslim population in India, which most probably all belong to haplogroup T.

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V. Grugni(2012) finds 7.9%(5/63) of haplogroup T among the Azerbaijan Turks who live in Iran.

Here's a quick summary of the most common Azeri haplogroups. In terms of Y-DNA (paternal genetics), haplogroup J2 is the most prevalent with about 20 percent of Azeri men having it, followed by haplogroup G at a frequency of 18 percent. Others found in Azeri men are T (11%), R1b (11%), R1a (7%), E (6%), I (3%), and some others (15%). Within these haplogroups, some Azeri men specifically have the haplogroups T1, E1b1b1c1 (this one originated in Anatolia), G2a3b1, and R1b1a2.
http://www.khazaria.com/genetics/azeris.html


The ancient Turk tribes like the Hyderabad(18th-20th centuries AD), Ghaznavid(10th-12th centuries AD), Mamlukid(12th-13th centuries AD), Safavid until Kajar(15th-20th centuries AD), Timurid and Ilkhanid(13th-15th centuries AD) ruled the regions between modern Iran and India, and these ancient Turks were the ones that implemented the Turko-Islam culture(which transformed later in some regions into a Turkish version of Shia) of Khalach Mansoor, Khoja Akhmet Yassawi and Haji Bektash Veli in India, Iran and Azerbaijan.

Resim

Hyderābād State About this sound pronunciation (help·info) was an Indian princely state located in the south-central region of India, and was ruled, from 1724 until 1948, by a hereditary Nizam. The capital city was Hyderabad.

The Asaf Jahi Dynasty was a dynasty of Turkic origin from the region around Samarkand in modern-day Uzbekistan, who came to India in the late 17th century, and became employees of the Mughal Empire. The region became part of the Mughal Empire in the 1680s. When the empire began to weaken in the 18th century, Asif Jah defeated a rival Mughal governor's attempt to seize control of the empire's southern provinces, declaring himself Nizam-al-Mulk of Hyderabad in 1724. The Mughal emperor, under renewed attack from the Marathas, was unable to prevent it. Following the decline of the Mughal power, India saw the rise of Maratha Empire, Nizam himself saw many invasions by the Marathas. Some of the major battles fought between Marathas and Nizam include the Battle of Rakshasbhuvan, the Battle of Palkhed and the Battle of Kharda, all of which resulted in Maratha victory and suzerainty over the territory of Nizam and collection of tributary by the Marathas.

The Ghaznavid dynasty was a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic Mamluk origin at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Persia, much of Transoxania, and the northern parts of India from 977 to 1186. The dynasty was founded by Sebuktigin, upon his succession to rule of Ghazna (modern-day Ghazni Province in Afghanistan) after the death of his father-in-law, Alp Tigin, who was a break-away ex-general of the Samanids from Balkh, north of the Hindu Kush in Khorasan.

Although the dynasty was of Central Asian Turkic origin, it was thoroughly Persianized in terms of language, culture, literature, and habits, and hence is regarded by some as a "Persian dynasty" rather than Turkic.

Sebuktigin's son, Mahmud of Ghazni, declared independence from the Samanids and expanded the Ghaznavid Empire to the Oxus River (Amu Darya), the Indus Valley, and the Indian Ocean in the east, and to Rey and Hamadan (in modern-day Iran) in the west. Under the reign of Mas'ud I, the Ghaznavid dynasty began losing control over its western territories to the Seljuqs after the Battle of Dandanaqan, resulting in a restriction of its holdings to modern-day Afghanistan, Western Punjab, and the Balochistan region. In 1151, Sultan Bahram Shah lost Ghazni to the Ghurid king Ala al-Din Husayn.

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The Delhi Sultanate was a Delhi-based Muslim kingdom that stretched over large parts of India for 320 years (1206–1526).[7][8] Five dynasties ruled over Delhi Sultanate sequentially, the first four of which were of Turkic origin and the last was the Afghan Lodi. The Lodi dynasty was replaced by the Mughal dynasty. The five dynasties were the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90); the Khilji dynasty (1290–1320); the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414); the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51); and the Afghan Lodi dynasty (1451–1526).

The Mamluk Dynasty was directed into Northern India by Qutb-ud-din Aybak, a Turkic general from Central Asia. It was the first of five unrelated dynasties to rule India's Delhi Sultanate from 1206 to 1290. Aybak's tenure as a Ghurid dynasty administrator ranged between 1192 to 1206, a period during which he led invasions into the Gangetic heartland of India and established control over some of the new areas.

The Mamluk Sultanate was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz. It lasted from the overthrow of the Ayyubid Dynasty until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517. The sultanate's ruling caste was composed of Mamluks, soldiers of predominantly Cuman-Kipchaks (from Crimea), Circassian, and Georgian slave origin. While Mamluks were purchased, their status was above ordinary slaves, who were not allowed to carry weapons or perform certain tasks. Mamluks were considered to be "true lords", with social status above freeborn Egyptian Muslims. Though it declined towards the end of its existence, at its height the sultanate represented the zenith of medieval Egyptian and Levantine political, economic, and cultural glory in the Islamic era.

One of its official name was Dawlat al-Turkiyya - The state of the Turks. The Arabic sources for the period refer to the dynasty as the Dawlat al-Atrak, Dawlat al-Turk or al-Dawla al-Turkiyya.

Between the Middle Ages and the modern period, the Middle East was dominated by dynasties of Turkish origins. Militarily supported by Turkish tribesmen, often seeking legitimacy in the political ideals of the great nomadic conquerors of the 13th-14th centuries, these dynasties also patronised a renaissance of Persian culture, and the greatest of them, the Safavids, laid the foundations for the modern Iranian state. This course investigates how the Iranian world – including central Asia and eastern Anatolia – was shaped by these Turkic dynasties, especially the Timurids and Safavids, and the interplay of different cultural and ethnic forces that shaped the early modern Middle East. The course will make extensive use of the primary sources in English translation as well as the secondary literature.

The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate, was a breakaway state of the Mongol Empire, which was ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu. It was established in the 13th century and was based primarily in Iran as well as neighboring territories, such as present-day Azerbaijan, and the central and eastern parts of present-day Turkey.

Khoja Akhmet Yassawi (Uzbek: Xoja Ahmad Yasaviy; Kazakh: Қожа Ахмет Ясауи, Turkmen: Hoja Ahmet Ýasawy, Turkish: Hoca Ahmet Yesevi also spelled Ahmad Yasawi, Ahmet Yasevi, Ahmed Yesevi or Ata Yesevi) (born in Sayram in 1093, and died in 1166 in Hazrat-e Turkestan, both cities now in Kazakhstan), was a Turkic poet and Sufi (Muslim mystic), an early mystic who exerted a powerful influence on the development of mystical orders throughout the Turkic-speaking world. Yasavi is currently the earliest known Turkic poet who composed poetry in a Turkic dialect. Ahmed Yesevi was a pioneer of popular mysticism, founded the first Turkic tariqah (order), the Yasaviyya (Yeseviye), which very quickly spread over the Turkic-speaking areas.

Haji Bektash Veli or Ḥājī Baktāsh Walī was an Alevi Turkic Muslim mystic, Sayyid, humanist and philosopher from Nishapur in Khorasan, Persia (Iran), who lived and taught from approximately 1209 to 1271 in Anatolia. He is revered among Alevis for an Islamic understanding that is esoteric (spiritual), rational, progressive and humanistic. Alevi and Bektashi Muslims believe the path of Haji Bektash is the path of Ali ibn Abu Talib, since Ali was the source of Bektash his teachings. His original name was "Sayyeed Muhammad ibn Sayyeed Ebrāheem Ātā", was one of the figures who flourished in the Sultanate of Rum and had an important influence on the Turkoman nomads of Asia Minor. He is also referred to as the Sultan of Hearts[6] and the Derwish of the Derwishes. Haji Bektash Veli was a descendant of the 7th Shi'a Imam Musa Kazim.
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Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 07 May 2015, 02:22

S. Sengupta(2006) finds 12,5%(1/8) of haplogroup T among the Xibo tribe whom speak an Altaic language.

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Xue et. al. 2006 finds 4.9%(2/41) of haplogroup K*(xN,O,P) among the Xibo tribe.

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Shou et. al. 2010 finds 9.4%(3/32) of haplogroup K*(xN,O,P) among the Xibo tribe.

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Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 08 May 2015, 00:20

A list of some facts about the Turk origin of haplogroup T

1. Altaian Kosh-Agach tribes of the Kazakh Turks: 38,8%(19/49) of haplogroup T

2. Bhutanese person with ID "Bhu-1892": Most basal haplotype of haplogroup T

3. Quechua tribe of the Natives of Peru: 27,3%(3/11) of T

4. Shia Muslims from India: 28%(7/25) of T

5. Azerbaijan Turks from Iran: 7.9%(5/63) of T

6. 15th century Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar with Turk origin: L1a

7. Altaic Xibo: 12,5%(1/8) of T

8. Altaic, Uralic and Dravidian languages: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=10966

9. Dravidians: 52.6%(10/19) and 55.6%(10/18) of T

10. Dravidians: are just like the Turks, the descendants of the Proto Turk Sumerians(Kangars/Kengers). Read more on the Altaic(Prot Turk) origins of Dravidians at the page viewtopic.php?f=2&t=10966 .

11. The historical scientific source "Jāmiʻat al-Malik ʻAbd al-ʻAzīz. Maʻhad Shuʻūn al Aqallīyat al-Muslimah" that writes obviously: Sayyid al-Ajall Shams al-Din Umar al-Bukhari (Ch. Sai-tien-ch'ih shan-ssu-ting). a court official and general of Turkic origin.
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Ottoman Occupation on Somaliland Started At 1546

Colonial Period of Ottoman Occupation on Somaliland about 466 years ago. Somaliland records of its own history and heritage is extremely poor and grounded in unproven verbal claims.

Part of the northern Somali coast, including Seylac, was then nominally under Turkish suzerainty (the Turkish claim going back to the 16th century, when Turkish forces had aided Aḥmad Grāñ in his campaigns against Ethiopia).
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Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 08 May 2015, 01:23

It is a fact that Zheng He of Turk ethnic origin, had Y-DNA Haplogroup L1a-M76. In the 15th Century AD, Zheng He executed dozens of missions/voyages to some regions such as Indonesia, Madagascar, Somalia. It is a fact that Zheng He and his crew/team brought Islam(or at least caused for Islam to be dominant) into these regions.

Zheng He had the typical noble Turk mental character, he brought peace in the regions he managed or ruled, justice was performed equally for the complete population. For example, Zheng He played such an important role in the history of Indonesia, that even today some people in Indonesia consider Zheng He as a GOD.

The people in Indonesia speak a Malagasy language. The people in Madagascar also speak a Malagasy language. A similar genetic structure was found among the samples from Indonesia, Madagascar and Somalia/Ethiopia at the studies Capredon et al 2013, Kusuma et al 2014, Tofonelli et al 2009, and C. A. Plaster et al. The high frequencies of haplogroup O found in these samples, shows that there was a migration conducted of Muslim Turks from China into these countries.

Zheng He was a Muslim of Central Asian Turk ethnic origin, his Y-DNA haplogroup was L1a-M76. The Y-DNA mutation LT-P326 is the direct ancestor of the Y-DNA haplogroups L1a-M76 and T1a-M70. This fact shows that both haplogroups are of Turk origin.

The existance of these two haplogroups L1a and T1a(together with J1, J2, R1a and R1b) among the Indonesian and Madagascar samples, shows that the members of these haplogroups are brought by the Muslim Central Asian Turks whom were ethnically related to Zheng He. The same Muslim Central Asian Turks brought these haplogroups also into Somalia. The Dravidians(their homeland is Central Asia, migrated later to India) that speak a language closely related to Altaic and Turk and Proto Turk(Sumerian) languages, could also have played an earlier role(maybe during the time of the Sumerians) in the transportation of these haplogroups into these regions. Not to forget the fact that the Ottoman Turks ruled the regions around Somalia for a long time.

Some of the haplogroup O members could be associated with Han Chinese people. The haplogroup B and some of the haplogroup E members could be associated with African people.

The finding at the M. A. Gubina et al 2013 study, of 38,8%(19/49) of haplogroup K*(xL,N,O,P) among the Muslim Kosh-Agach tribes of the Kazakh Turks who live in the Altai Republic, confirms the fact that haplogroup T1a, together with L1a, G, H, J1, J2, R1a and R1b is of Muslim Central Asian Turk ethnic origin.

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The Gonzalez et al 2012 study finds a high frequency of R1b1 among the Guinean nation. 16.97%(19/112) of R1b1a* and R1b1b2 was found among the Guineans. Also other West Eurasian and East Eurasian haplogroups(not counting the E1b results) were found. 1.79%(2/112) of G, and 0.89%(1/112) of N1c were found, which makes it a total of 18.76% of West Eurasian haplogroups among the West-African Guineans.

Resim

The Ming Voyages

Introduction


From 1405 until 1433, the Chinese imperial eunuch Zheng He led seven ocean expeditions for the Ming emperor that are unmatched in world history. These missions were astonishing as much for their distance as for their size: during the first ones, Zheng He traveled all the way from China to Southeast Asia and then on to India, all the way to major trading sites on India's southwest coast. In his fourth voyage, he traveled to the Persian Gulf. But for the three last voyages, Zheng went even further, all the way to the east coast of Africa. This was impressive enough, but Chinese merchants had traveled this far before. What was even more impressive about these voyages was that they were done with hundreds of huge ships and tens of thousands of sailors and other passengers. Over sixty of the three hundred seventeen ships on the first voyage were enormous "Treasure Ships," sailing vessels over 400 hundred feet long, 160 feet wide, with several stories, nine masts and twelve sails, and luxurious staterooms complete with balconies. The likes of these ships had never before been seen in the world, and it would not be until World War I that such an armada would be assembled again. The story of how these flotillas came to be assembled, where they went, and what happened to them is one of the great sagas — and puzzles — in world history.

The Emperor and His Ambitions

The Ming dynasty (1368-1644) was a Chinese dynasty with a Chinese imperial family, as distinct from the dynasty that came before it (the Mongol, or Yuan, dynasty of Chinggis and Khubilai Khan) or the one that followed it (the Manchu, or Qing, dynasty). To demonstrate Ming power, the first emperors initiated campaigns to decisively defeat any domestic or foreign threat. The third emperor of the Ming Dynasty, Zhu Di or the Yongle Emperor, was particularly aggressive and personally led major campaigns against Mongolian tribes to the north and west. He also wanted those in other countries to be aware of China's power, and to perceive it as the strong country he believed it had been in earlier Chinese dynasties, such as the Han and the Song; he thus revived the traditional tribute system. In the traditional tributary arrangement, countries on China's borders agreed to recognize China as their superior and its emperor as lord of "all under Heaven." These countries regularly gave gifts of tribute in exchange for certain benefits, like military posts and trade treaties. In this system, all benefited, with both peace and trade assured. Because the Yongle emperor realized that the major threats to China in this period were from the north, particularly the Mongols, he saved many of those military excursions for himself. He sent his most trusted generals to deal with the Manchurian people to the north, the Koreans and Japanese to the east, and the Vietnamese in the south. For ocean expeditions to the south and west, however, he decided that this time China should make use of its extremely advanced technology and all the riches the state had to offer. Lavish expeditions should be mounted in order to overwhelm foreign peoples and convince them beyond any doubt about Ming power. For this special purpose, he chose one of his most trusted generals, a man he had known since he was young, Zheng He.

The Trusted Admiral Zheng He

Zheng He was born Ma He to a Muslim family in the far southwest, in today's Yunnan province. At ten years old he was captured by soldiers sent there by the first Ming emperor intent on subduing the south. He was sent to the capital to be trained in military ways. Growing up to be a burly, imposing man, over six feet tall with a chest contemporaries said measured over five feet around, he was also extremely talented and intelligent. He received both literary and military training, then made his way up the military ladder with ease, making important allies at court in the process. When the emperor needed a trustworthy ambassador familiar with Islam and the ways of the south to head his splendid armada to the "Western Oceans," he naturally picked the talented court eunuch, Ma He, whom he renamed Zheng.


Preparing the Fleet

China had been extending its power out to sea for 300 years. To satisfy growing Chinese demand for special spices, medicinal herbs, and raw materials, Chinese merchants cooperated with Moslem and Indian traders to develop a rich network of trade that reached beyond island southeast Asia to the fringes of the Indian Ocean. Into the ports of eastern China came ginseng, lacquerware, celadon, gold and silver, horses and oxen from Korea and Japan. Into the ports of southern China came hardwoods and other tree products, ivory, rhinoceros horn, brilliant kingfisher feathers, ginger, sulfur and tin from Vietnam and Siam in mainland southeast Asia; cloves, nutmeg, batik fabrics, pearls, tree resins, and bird plumes from Sumatra, Java, and the Moluccas in island southeast Asia. Trade winds across the Indian Ocean brought ships carrying cardamom, cinnamon, ginger, turmeric, and especially pepper from Calicut on the southwestern coast of India, gemstones from Ceylon (Sri Lanka), as well as woolens, carpets, and more precious stones from ports as far away as Hormuz on the Persian Gulf and Aden on the Red Sea. Agricultural products from north and east Africa also made their way to China, although little was known about those regions.

By the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, China had reached a peak of naval technology unsurpassed in the world. While using many technologies of Chinese invention, Chinese shipbuilders also combined technologies they borrowed and adapted from seafarers of the South China seas and the Indian Ocean. For centuries, China was the preeminent maritime power in the region, with advances in navigation, naval architecture, and propulsion. From the ninth century on, the Chinese had taken their magnetic compasses aboard ships to use for navigating (two centuries before Europe). In addition to compasses, Chinese could navigate by the stars when skies were clear, using printed manuals with star charts and compass bearings that had been available since the thirteenth century. Star charts had been produced from at least the eleventh century, reflecting China's concern with heavenly events (unmatched until the Renaissance in Europe).

An important advance in shipbuilding used since the second century in China was the construction of double hulls divided into separate watertight compartments. This saved ships from sinking if rammed, but it also offered a method of carrying water for passengers and animals, as well as tanks for keeping fish catches fresh. Crucial to navigation was another Chinese invention of the first century, the sternpost rudder, fastened to the outside rear of a ship which could be raised and lowered according to the depth of the water, and used to navigate close to shore, in crowded harbors and narrow channels. Both these inventions were commonplace in China 1,000 years before their introduction to Europe.

Chinese ships were also noted for their advances in sail design and rigging. Bypassing the need for banks of rowers, by the third and fourth centuries the Chinese were building three- and four-masted ships (1000 years before Europe) of wind-efficient design. In the eleventh and twelfth centuries they added lug and then lateen sails from the Arabs to help sail against the prevailing winds.

By the eighth century, ships 200 feet long capable of carrying 500 men were being built in China (the size of Columbus' ships eight centuries later!) By the Song Dynasty (960-1279), these stout and stable ships with their private cabins for travelers and fresh water for drinking and bathing were the ships of choice for Arab and Persian traders in the Indian Ocean. The Mongol Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) encouraged commercial activity and maritime trade, so the succeeding Ming Dynasty inherited large shipyards, many skilled shipyard workers, and finely tuned naval technology from the dynasty that preceded it.

Because the Yongle emperor wanted to impress Ming power upon the world and show off China's resources and importance, he gave orders to build even larger ships than were necessary for the voyages. Thus the word went out to construct special "Treasure Ships," ships over 400 feet long, 160 feet wide, with nine masts, twelve sails, and four decks, large enough to carry 2,500 tons of cargo each and armed with dozens of small cannons. Accompanying those ships were to be hundreds of smaller ships, some filled only with water, others carrying troops or horses or cannon, still others with gifts of silks and brocades, porcelains, lacquerware, tea, and ironworks that would impress leaders of far-flung civilizations.

The Seven Voyages

The first expedition of this mighty armada (1405-07) was composed of 317 ships, including perhaps as many as sixty huge Treasure Ships, and nearly 28,000 men. In addition to thousands of sailors, builders and repairmen for the trip, there were soldiers, diplomatic specialists, medical personnel, astronomers, and scholars of foreign ways, especially Islam. The fleet stopped in Champa (central Vietnam) and Siam (today's Thailand) and then on to island Java, to points along the Straits of Malacca, and then proceeded to its main destination of Cochin and the kingdom of Calicut on the southwestern coast of India. On his return, Zheng He put down a pirate uprising in Sumatra, bringing the pirate chief, an overseas Chinese, back to Nanjing for punishment.

The second expedition (1407-1409) took 68 ships to the court of Calicut to attend the inauguration of a new king. Zheng He organized this expedition but did not actually lead it in person.

Zheng He did command the third voyage (1409-1411) with 48 large ships and 30,000 troops, visiting many of the same places as on the first voyage but also traveling to Malacca on the Malay peninsula and Ceylon (Sri Lanka). When fighting broke out there between his forces and those of a small kingdom, Zheng put down the fighting, captured the king and brought him back to China where he was released by the emperor and returned home duly impressed.

The fourth voyage (1413-15) extended the scope of the expeditions even further. This time in addition to visiting many of the same sites, Zheng He commandeered his 63 ships and over 28,000 men to Hormuz on the Persian Gulf. The main chronicler of the voyages, the twenty-five year old Muslim translator Ma Huan, joined Zheng He on this trip. On the way, Zheng He stopped in Sumatra to fight on the side of a deposed sultan, bringing the usurper back to Nanjing for execution.

The fifth voyage (1417-1419) was primarily a return trip for seventeen heads of state from South Asia. They had made their way to China after Zheng He's visits to their homelands in order to present their tribute at the Ming Court. On this trip Zheng He ventured even further, first to Aden at the mouth of the Red Sea, and then on to the east coast of Africa, stopping at the city states of Mogadishu and Brawa (in today's Somalia), and Malindi (in present day Kenya). He was frequently met with hostility but this was easily subdued. Many ambassadors from the countries visited came back to China with him.

The sixth expedition (1421-1422) of 41 ships sailed to many of the previously visited Southeast Asian and Indian courts and stops in the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea, and the coast of Africa, principally in order to return nineteen ambassadors to their homelands. Zheng He returned to China after less than a year, having sent his fleet onward to pursue several separate itineraries, with some ships going perhaps as far south as Sofala in present day Mozambique.

The seventh and final voyage (1431-33) was sent out by the Yongle emperor's successor, his grandson the Xuande emperor. This expedition had more than one hundred large ships and over 27,000 men, and it visited all the important ports in the South China Sea and Indian Ocean as well as Aden and Hormuz. One auxiliary voyage traveled up the Red Sea to Jidda, only a few hundred miles from the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. It was on the return trip in 1433 that Zheng He died and was buried at sea, although his official grave still stands in Nanjing, China. Nearly forgotten in China until recently, he was immortalized among Chinese communities abroad, particularly in Southeast Asia where to this day he is celebrated and revered as a god.

The Fateful Decision

Factions at court had long been critical of the Yongle emperor's extravagant ways. Not only had he sent seven missions of the enormous Treasure Ships over the western seas, he had ordered overseas missions northeast and east, had sent envoys multiple times across desert and grassland to the mountains of Tibet and Nepal and on to Bengal and Siam, and had many times raised armies against fragmented but still troublesome Mongolian tribes to the north. He had embroiled China in a losing battle with Annam (northern Vietnam) for decades (most latterly due to exorbitant demands for timber to build his palace). In addition to these foreign exploits, he had further depleted the treasury by moving the capital from Nanjing to Beijing and, with a grandeur on land to match that on sea, by ordering the construction of the magnificent Forbidden City. This project involved over a million laborers. To further fortifying the north of his empire, he pledged his administration to the enormous task of reviving and extending the Grand Canal. This made it possible to transport grain and other foodstuffs from the rich southern provinces to the northern capital by barge, rather than by ships along the coast.

Causing further hardship were natural disasters, severe famines in Shantong and Hunan, epidemics in Fujian, plus lightning strikes that destroyed part of the newly constructed Forbidden City. In 1448, flooding of the Yellow River left millions homeless and thousands of acres unproductive. As a result of these disasters coupled with corruption and nonpayment of taxes by wealthy elite, China's tax base shrank by almost half over the course of the century.

Furthermore the fortuitous fragmentation of the Mongol threat along China's northern borders did not last. By 1449 several tribes unified and their raids and counterattacks were to haunt the Ming Dynasty for the next two centuries until its fall, forcing military attention to be focused on the north. But the situation in the south was not much better. Without continual diplomatic attention, pirates and smugglers again were active in the South China Sea.

The Ming court was divided into many factions, most sharply into the pro-expansionist voices led by the powerful eunuch factions that had been responsible for the policies supporting Zheng Ho's voyages, and more traditional conservative Confucian court advisers who argued for frugality. When another seafaring voyage was suggested to the court in 1477, the vice president of the Ministry of War confiscated all of Zheng He's records in the archives, damning them as "deceitful exaggerations of bizarre things far removed from the testimony of people's eyes and ears." He argued that "the expeditions of San Bao [meaning "Three Jewels," as Zheng He was called] to the West Ocean wasted tens of myriads of money and grain and moreover the people who met their deaths may be counted in the myriads. Although he returned with wonderful precious things, what benefit was it to the state?"

Linked to eunuch politics and wasteful policies, the voyages were over. By the century's end, ships could not be built with more than two masts, and in 1525 the government ordered the destruction of all oceangoing ships. The greatest navy in history, which once had 3,500 ships (the U.S. Navy today has only 324), was gone.

http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/special/c ... tm#trusted

End of an era

Toward the end of his seventh voyage in 1433, the 62-year-old Zheng He died and was said to have been buried at sea. Although he had extended the wealth and power of China over a vast realm and is even today revered as a god in remote parts of Indonesia, the tide was already turning against foreign ventures.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ancient/an ... orers.html

Sam Poo Kong

Sam Poo Kong (Chinese: 三保洞; pinyin: Sānbǎo Dòng), also known as Gedung Batu Temple, is the oldest Chinese temple in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. Originally established by the Chinese Muslim explorer Zheng He (also known as Sanbao), it is now shared by Indonesians of multiple religious denominations, including Muslims and Buddhists, and ethnicities, including Chinese and Javanese.

The foundations of Sam Poo Kong were set when Chinese Muslim explorer Admiral Zheng He arrived in the western part of what is now Semarang via the Garang River; the year is disputed, with suggestions ranging from 1400 to 1416. After disembarking from his ships, Zheng found a cave in a rocky hillside and used it for prayer. He established a small temple before leaving Java, but having grown fond of the area his deputy Wang Jing and several crewmen remained behind. A statuette of Zheng was installed in the cave.

The original temple was reportedly destroyed in 1704, collapsing under a landslide. In October 1724 the temple was completely renovated. A new cave was also made, located next to the old one.

In the middle of the 1800s Sam Poo Kong was owned by a Mr. Johanes, a landlord of Jewish descent, who charged devotees for the right to pray at the temple. Unable to pay individual fees, the Chinese community spent 2000 gulden yearly to keep the temple open; this was later reduced to 500 gulden after worshipers complained of the expense. As this was still a heavy burden, devotees abandoned Sam Poo Kong and found a statue of Zheng He to bring to Tay Kak Sie temple, 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) away, where they could pray freely.

In 1879, Oei Tjie Sing, a prominent local businessman, bought the Sam Poo Kong complex and made its use free of charge; in response, local Chinese celebrated by holding a carnival and began returning to Sam Poo Kong. The temple's ownership was transferred to the recently founded Sam Poo Kong foundation in 1924.

The temple received another full renovation in 1937. After the Japanese invasion of the Indies, the Japanese command installed electricity and provided the temple with a framed written appraisal for Zeng He. During five years of revolution after the Japanese left the newly independent Indonesia, the temple was poorly maintained and fell into disrepair.

In 1950, Sam Poo Kong was again renovated. However, beginning in the 1960s increased political instability led to its being neglected again. From 2002 to 2005 it underwent another major renovation.

The Sam Poo Kong temple complex includes five temples in a mixed Chinese and Javanese architectural style. The temples are Sam Poo Kong (the oldest), Tho Tee Kong, Kyai Juru Mudi Temple, Kyai Jangkar Temple, and Kyai Cundrik Bumi Temple. An additional worship site, Mbah Kyai Tumpeng, is also located within the complex. The buildings are spread over 3.2 hectares (7.9 acres).

Tho Tee Kong (also known as Dewa Bumi Temple), is located just within the large gate at the northern end of the complex; it is used by those who seek the blessings of the earth god Tu Di Gong. Next to Tho Tee Kong is Kyai Juru Mudi Temple, the burial site of Wang Jing Hong, one of Zheng He's deputies. It is often frequented by people looking for success in business.

The main temple is built directly in front of the cave, located south of Kyai Juru Mudi. In the cave itself are an altar, fortune-telling equipment, and a small statue of Zheng He; underneath the altar is a well that is said to never go dry and to be capable of healing various ailments. Before the 2002 renovations, the temple measured 16 by 16 metres (52 by 52 ft); it now measures 34 by 34 metres (112 by 112 ft).

Further south is the Kyai Jankar Temple, named after a sacred anchor used by Zheng He which is held inside. The temple also contains an altar to those of Zheng's crewmen who died while fulfilling their duties. The southernmost temple is Kyai Cundrik Bumi, which is used to worship a weapon used by Zheng. Nearby is Mbah Kyai Tumpeng, a prayer site used by people wishing for their well-being.
The main temple (left), Kyai Juru Mudi Temple (center), and Tho Tee Kong (right)

Carnival

Every lunar year on the 30th day of the sixth month, the anniversary of Zheng He's arrival in Semarang, Chinese Indonesians parade statues of Zheng He, Lauw In, and Thio Ke from Tay Kak Sie to Sam Poo Kong. Started after Sam Poo Kong again became free to use, the carnival is meant to show respect to the explorers.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sam_Poo_Kong

The Rasikajy civilization in northeast Madagascar: a pre-European Chinese community?
Guido Schreurs, Sandra J.T.M. Evers, Chantal Radimilahy et Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa


Most of the tombs at Vohemar are roughly oriented east - west with the head of he deceased toward the east and facing north (Vernier & Millot 1971). The positioning of the bodies has been previously interpreted to be typical of muslim burials (Vernier & Millot 1971, Vérin 1986) and it can not be excluded that the Rasikajy at Vohemar had muslim roots. During the Mongol Yuan Dynasty and later during the Ming Dynasty Chinese muslims controlled much of the trade of goods leaving China (Crick 2010). The large Chinese fleets with hundreds of ships and thousands of crew that visited various regions of the Indian Ocean including the coasts of east Africa during the early 15th century were led by a muslim eunuch, Zheng He (Levathes 1986). Ma Huan who joined these tributary missions and wrote about them in detail (Ma Huan 1433) was also a muslim. Chinese muslim communities existed in Indonesia (e.g. Semarang, Java) in the 15th century (Suryadinata 2005).

Although the majority of known soapstone objects originate from the tombs at Vohemar, a number of soapstone objects have been discovered at several other locations along the east coast of northern Madagascar. These objects include well-shafts found South of Vohemar at Bemanevika near the mouth of the Bemarivo river and at Angolovato near the mouth of the Mahanara river (Vérin 1986) and an unfinished basin measuring 143 by 94 cm left near a quarry at Amboaimohehy (ibid.). Other soapstone objects found in the Vohemar region include a block perforated with a circular hole and used as a foundry tube (Vernier & Millot 1971 49), and a knife sharpener with part of an iron blade still attached found in a grave at Antanandava (ibid.).

About 750 km south of Vohemar, a soapstone sculpture of an animal is present in the village of Amobhitsara (e.g. Jully 1898, A. Grandidier & G. Grandidier 1908, Griffin 2009). The Malagasy refer to the statue as vatolambo (stone wild boar) or vatomasina (sacred stone). The sculpture measures 106 cm in height, is largely hollow and is described in detail by Molet & Vernier (1956), who suggest that it resembles the Sumatran elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus). The presence of soapstone quarries in the immediate surroundings (e.g. Griffin 2009) suggests that the sculpture was made at or near Ambohitsara and that the Rasikajy migrated along the east coast of Madagascar. It is speculated here that the stone sculpture might have played a role in the funeral rituals of the Rasikajy. In ancient China, the path leading to tombs of important persons was often aligned with stone sculptures representing (mythical) animals or humans, a tradition that started in the Han Dynasty and lasted well into the 20th century (Paludan & Wilkinson 1998).

http://oceanindien.revues.org/1221

(2) Australia’s stories told by Zheng He Navigation Chart

Among the Chinese scholarship on Zheng He history in the 1980s, a groundbreaking study by Professor Zheng Yijun dares blazing the unbeaten path. It boldly suggests that during the 1421 western voyage, Zheng He fleets took the old sea route of Sukatana to reach Australia and then across the Pacific Ocean to Madagascar. According to him, in the sixth expedition there were three southeast sea routes from Malacca. One of which was setting out from Malacca to Medan and then Java and Timor. According to him, the direction of the good wind changed from Northeast to Northwest after Zheng He fleets sailed across the tropics. As soon as the fleets arrived in Tuban of east Java, they can catch the Northwest wind to sail to the islands of Timor and New Guinea. At this time, in the tropical south it was when the season of Southeast monsoon began. Catching the trade winds, the fleets can sail passed Solomon Islands and enter the Pacific Ocean. Meanwhile, during the Southeast monsoon season, they can also sail back to Java from Solomon Islands and New Guinea. During their route of return, they crossed the Coral Sea, passing the Arafura Sea and Timor Sea north of Australia to return to Java. And then from Java, they got out from the Sunda Strait heading west straight to Madagascar. (10)

Professor Zheng also thinks Zheng He Navigation Charts show a sea route from Java and Gillimum that can be extended to Australia and Madagascar.
This sea route reflected the fact that during the sixth mission, a division of Zheng He fleets from Malacca was coasting along Java - 2 - across southeast of the tropics to explore Timor Sea and Arafura Sea. (11) In addition, Zheng Yi Jun also cites a Ming author, Sheng Mao Sheng’s Haiguo Guangji [Notes on marine countries] as evidence. According to an old man with the surname Zhou, who joined Zheng He naval expedition during the reign of Xuande Emperor, they had visited Xiwen Dala or Sumatra, Su Ji Dan or Sukatana, Manali or Maraje meaning the kingdom of the queen in the East Coast of today Darwin. (12) Needless to say, here the vast regions of subsidiary states under the entry of Sukatana, like I said before, started from Sunda Islands in the western most to Timor Island in the eastern most. It was the same seas route from Java that took Wang Da Yuan to Timor, New Guinea and Australia in the late Yuan times. Moreover, based on the surviving document of Zheng Wei Pian[compass bearings sea chart book] from the early Ming dated at 1411, Professor Zhang even speculates about Yang Ming division of Zheng He fleets making a global circumnavigation during the period of 4 years when they were reportedly blown off the course in a gusty storm at the ocean named as the Tortoise Ocean and sailing across the uncharted seas. From 1421 to 1425, they had set sail crossing the Indian Ocean to the south of the tropics, entered deep into the Atlantic Ocean and coasted along Southwest Africa, and then turned east into the Pacific Ocean and eventually arriving at the coasts of Australia.(13)

http://www.gavinmenzies.net/Evidence/5- ... gust-2006/

The Sultanate of Mogadishu (Somali: Saldanadda Muqdisho, Arabic: سلطنة مقديشو‎) (fl. 10th-16th centuries) was a medieval trading empire in Somalia.

Archaeological excavations have recovered many coins from China, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. The majority of the Chinese coins date to the Song Dynasty, although the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty "are also represented," according to Richard Pankhurst.

In 1416, Mogadishu sent ambassadors to pay tribute to the Ming dynasty. The Yongle Emperor dispatched Admiral Zheng He to return ambassadors to the Somali city, with Zheng He revisiting Mogadishu along with Barawa in 1430 during his fourth trip. He would also return during his fifth, sixth, and seventh voyages in the Indian Ocean.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sultanate_of_Mogadishu

Finally I have understood the “Zheng He’s Fleets Nautical Chart”
Zheng He’s Fleets Had Reached Australia Before 1450

by Professor Zhiqiang Zhang


After “decoding” that the names of places in the coastal area on the “Zheng He Nautical Chart” are respectively “ Ji’er’wa ”, “ Suo’fa’la” and “Ma’er’jia’shi” (translator note: sounds in Chinese with ’separating each character), I deduced that “Malindi” on the Chart is not in Kenya, nor in Tanzania, but at the south tip of Africa. At that time, I was taking a tumble(meaning suddenly realized something). Actually there were three places all with the name of Malindi along the south-east coast of Africa in early 15th century. Zheng He’s Fleets not only had been to Somalia, Mozambique, Madagascar, but also had been to Malindi at the south tip of South Africa. This indeed shows that Zheng He’s Fleets had been to the south tip of Africa more than half a century earlier than the Portuguese navigators. The Nautical Chart itself is the evidence. I couldn’t help jumping joyfully!

Lessons From Zheng He: Love of Peace and Multiculturalism Chapter 9
Choirul Mahfud


Violence, radicalism and terrorism are issues that have recently raised
concern in many different parts of the world. These have become intractable
problems that challenge our civilisation. Efforts to fiht against violence
and terrorism in order to achieve peace are indispensable. The question
is where should we begin? One solution is to learn from Zheng He, one
of the world’s most outstanding historical fiures. He set an example to
show how to promote peace, tolerance, mutual understanding and even
respect for religious and cultural diversity (multiculturalism).
In Indonesia, Zheng He is also popularly known as Sampokong,
or Cheng Ho. He became an Admiral, diplomat, and explorer during the
Ming dynasty (1368-1644) in China. His original name was Ma He and
he was born in 1371 into a Muslim family in Kunyang, Yunnan province.
He was captured by the Yuan army in 1382, and impressed into the service
of one of the imperial princes, Zhu Di, in 1382. In this capacity he helped
Zhu Di become Emperor Yongle, the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty.
In gratitude for his service, Zhu Di appointed him Grand Imperial Eunuch
and changed his name to Zheng He. Yongle instructed him to command
a series of naval expeditions to Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean
(Stuart-Fox 2003). His flet was the largest in history before the First
World War, and travelled more than 35 countries during his voyages.1
Zheng He’s mission was certainly a diplomatic one, and may also have
had scientifi and commercial aims as well.
His voyages pre-dated those of the European explorers, such as
Columbus and Vasco da Gama. His flet was much larger than Columbus’
flet (two hundred ships compared to only three), and his ships were also
said to have been much larger. His seven expeditions totalled a distance of more than 50,000 kilometers. It was during these expeditions that Admiral
Zheng He put into practice a multiculturalism approach. He showed great
respect for the cultural diversity of the local communities he encountered,
including their languages, cultural values, religions, and artefacts.2
The Indonesian historian Slamet Muljana (2005) said that few
diplomatic efforts were made between China and other countries during
the Yuan dynasty. However, the Ming dynasty promoted diplomacy on
a grand scale, mainly through Zheng He’s voyages. His flets travelled
to Aceh, Palembang, Cirebon, Semarang and Gresik. He established
diplomatic relations with the Majapahit Kingdom in Central Java. Zheng
He may have been responsible for the introduction of the Chinese system
of government and politics to the Javanese kingdom.
According to Muljana (2005), when the Javanese Hindu kingdom,
Majapahit Kingdom, was in decline, the Chinese Muslim community,
under Zheng He’s guidance, helped the native people establish an Islamic
Demak Kingdom in the archipelago. According to Pong (2009) during
one of his voyages, Zheng He intervened in a civil war in Java and
established a new king there. Muljana added that after Zheng landed in
Semarang in 1413 to repair his ship, he prayed daily, and the place where
he prayed was later called Sam Po Kong. Oei Thiam Hien, caretaker of
the Zheng He Temple in Semarang, was quoted by local media as saying
that Sam Po Kong was thought to have originally been a mosque, but was
later turned into a Chinese temple and named after Zheng He.
Indonesian religious leader and Islamic scholar, Hamka (1961),
was quoted by Rosey Wang Ma that the development of Islam in Indonesia
and Malaya is intimately related to Admiral Zheng He, a Chinese Muslim.
In Melaka, he is said to have built granaries, warehouses and a stockade.
Some of his crew members, who may have been Muslim, stayed behind.3
Tan (2009) explained that Zheng He’s voyages took place within
the larger context of “culture contact” between China and the West. He
illustrates the peaceful impact of culture contact, and gave an account of how such cultural inflences led to transmissions, conversions and
transferences of religion and cultural practices. The process involved
Muslims from Western China and Yunnan as well as Chams, Javanese,
Malays, Arabs and Indians. However, many Chinese in the Malay world
chose to retain their non-Muslim cultural traits.
Tan (2009) showed evidence to argue in favour of the existence
of the “Third Wave”, i.e. “the Chinese Wave”, in the spread of Islam to the
Southeast Asian region - the two other major waves were the India-Gujarat
Wave and the Middle East Wave. Muljana (2005) suggests that Zheng He
built Chinese Muslim communities fist in Palembang, and then in San Fa
(West Kalimantan), subsequently he founded similar communities along the
shores of Java, the Malay Peninsula and the Philippines. These communities
propagated the Islamic faith according to the Hanaf school of thought.
Early Ming rhetoric makes abundantly clear the intention of the
dynasty to re-establish the Chinese ‘imperial order’. The lofty tolerance,
the benevolence and impartiality, masked a reality with regard to power
that the Ming were determined should be well understood. Power had
always formed a crucial dimension of the hierarchical Chinese world
order. China stood at the centre of the world, not just because of its
superior civilisation and the virtue of the emperor, but because of its
imperial power—to command, enforce, and punish if necessary. Zheng
He’s kid-glove diplomacy only masked his capacity to enforce the order
he represented (Stuart-Fox 2003, pp. 87-89).
It is clear that we can learn some important lessons from Zheng
He. Firstly, it is with regard to his love of peace and anti-violence.
Secondly, he set an example for us all to follow by paying respect to
the spirit of multiculturalism and building social solidarity, without
favouring the ethnic Chinese in Indonesia or discriminating against the
local community at the time. We need to emulate Zheng’s spirit of broadminded tolerance of each other’s differences to create opportunities
through increased cooperation. The story of Zheng He’s expeditions is rich in spiritual wealth, and we can learn much from him in the area of
peaceful diplomacy and non-violence in order to achieve multiculturalism
and pluralism for all.

REfERENCES
Berlie, Jean A. Islam in China: Hui and Uyghurs Between Modernization
and Sinicization. Bangkok Thailand: White Lotus Press, 2004.
Hamka. Sedjarah Umat Islam Jilid 1 dan 2. [History of Islamic
Followers, First and Second edition]. Jakarta: Nusantara, 1961.
Ma Huan and J.V.G. Mills, tr. Ying-yai Sheng-lan: The Overall Survey of
the Ocean’s Shores (1433). Bangkok: White Lotus Press, 1997.
Muljana, Slamet. The Collapse of the Hinadu-Javanese Kingdom and the
Rise of Islamic States in the Archipelago. Yogyakarta: LKIS, 2005.
Pong, David. ed. Encyclopedia of Modern China, Farmington Hills, MI:
Gale of Cengage Learning/Scribners’ Sons, 2009.
Stuart-Fox, Martin. A Short History of China and Southeast Asia; Tribute,
Trade And Inflence, Crows Nest NSW Australia: Allen & Unwin, 2003.
Suryadinata, Leo. ed. Laksamana Cheng Ho dan Asia Tenggara (Admiral
Zheng He and Southeast Asia). Jakarta: Pustaka LP3ES, 2007.
Tan Ta Sen. Cheng Ho and Islam in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute
of Southeast Asian Studies, 2009

ENDNOTES
1 See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zheng_He, and http://www.bookrags.com/
biography/cheng-ho and http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/bios/b3zhenghe.
htm (accessed 5 June 2010).
2 See http://www.china.org.cn/english/2005/Jul/134724.htm (accessed 6 June 2010).
3 Rosey Wang Ma quoted from an article by Hamka entitled “Zheng He”, Star
Weekly, Indonesia, 8 March 1961. In turn, Hamka’s article appears to
have been featured in a paper delivered by Kong Yuan Zhi at the Conference
to Commemorate Zheng He, Kun Ming 1992. (See <http://210.0.141.99/eng/
malaysia/ChineseMuslim_in_Malaysia.asp#Early presence of Chinese
Muslims – Zheng He, the Muslim Eunuch and Hamka>

Zheng He's Voyages Down the Western Seas

Apart from escorting the envoys of 16 countries home, Zheng He had the mission of visiting other countries in the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean. After settling sail from Sumatra, the fleet broke up into several routes. Written records show that Zheng He's fleet arrived at Juba of Somalia south of Mogadishu and Mombassa of Kenya. Zheng He's fleet returned in August 1422 while other branch fleets returned one after another. Some sub-fleets even reached the coasts of West Africa. In 1495, German cartographer Fra Mauro noted that Chinese once reached Good Hope(at the southern end of Africa in his world map). The inscription for the map say: "In about 1421, a Chinese sialing boat from India passed through the Good Hope to Green Islands and Black Ocean toward west, sailing about 2000 miles in 40 days. When they saw nothing but water the boats returned to the Cope of Good Hope after 70 days."

https://books.google.nl/books?id=QmpkR6 ... ca&f=false

Former British submarine commander Gavin Menzies in his book 1421: The Year China Discovered the World claims that several parts of Zheng's fleet explored virtually the entire globe, discovering West Africa, North and South America, Greenland, Iceland, Antarctica and Australia before the voyages of Ferdinand Magellan and Christopher Columbus. Menzies also claims that Zheng's wooden fleet passed through the Arctic Ocean. Menzies proposes that Zheng He’s voyages, records, and maps are the sources for some of the other Ancient world maps, which he claims depicted the Americas, Antarctica, and the tip of Africa before the official European discovery of these areas, and the drawings of the Fra Mauro map or the De Virga world map. However none of the citations in1421 are from Chinese sources and scholars in China do not share Menzies' assertions.

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Zheng_He

Islam in Guinea

2005 official statistics for Islam in Guinea estimate that 85% of Guinea's 7.8 million people are Muslim.

Islam in Equatorial Guinea

According to the U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report 2006, practitioners of Islam comprised less than 1 percent of the population of Equatorial Guinea. Adherents.com, however, estimates that Muslims make up anywhere from 1% to 25% of the population.

Guinea, is a country in West Africa. Formerly known as French Guinea, it is today sometimes called Guinea-Conakry to distinguish it from its neighbour Guinea-Bissau and Equatorial Guinea. Guinea has a population of 10.5 million and an area of 245,860 square kilometres.

Equatorial Guinea, officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea, is a country located in Central Africa, with an area of 28,000 square kilometres. Formerly the colony of Spanish Guinea, its post-independence name evokes its location near both the Equator and the Gulf of Guinea. Equatorial Guinea is the only sovereign African state in which Spanish is an official language. As of 2012, the country has a population of 1.6 million.
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Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 08 May 2015, 01:38

Book: The Great Wall
Author: John Man

Link: https://books.google.by/books?id=BFlOQRpOiEcC

"The man entrusted to oversee and lead this new navy was none other than the Turkic Mongol eunuch Zheng He.

Meanwhile, the other side of the Great Wall, the Mongols also clung to the idea that they were still the "real rulers" of China, calling themselves the Northern Yuan, buttressing their claim with the Chinese title and the myth that the Ming were "really" Mongols. To their advantage, Mongolia was now emerging as a proper Mongol homeland: before rise of Genhis in the twelfth century there had been several other Turkic groups claiming it; since Genghis, it had been all part of the Mongol/Yuan empire; only after 1368 did it start becoming the Mongolia we know today."
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