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Turk Nation: Anthropology-Archaeology-Genetic-Haplogroups

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Turk Nation: Anthropology-Archaeology-Genetic-Haplogroups

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 12 Nis 2015, 23:16

Very Important Findings and Determinations about the History and the Origin of the Turk Nation based on Anthropologic, Archaeologic, Cultural and Genetic Data

First of all lets start by looking and analyzing at the two articles that were published by professors Orazak Ismagulov and Dashtseveg Tumen based on anthropologic and archaeologic data.
Although the two articles contain very important findings and determinations, it is sad to see that the article also contains very basic mistakes and wrong information whom are for years the political strategies of CIA, KGB, MI6 agents, who have bad intentions and try to force the same kind of lies to the academic world for years. The truth in the basis of the article is what is important. It is not so hard for academicians that have good intentions in their hearth and only want to do science and research, to see and interprete these bad intended mistatkes and manipulation keywords.

Orazak Ismagulov
-Kazakhstan National Academy of Sciences.
-Anthropologist - internationally known and respected

Article Name: "Physical Anthropology of Kazakh People and their Genesis"

In the article, firstly the ages in Kazakhstan from 60.000 years ago until today are being identified:

If we classify the graves that were found during the archaeological diggings, we can sort the human history into these parts:

Paleolithic Age: 60.000 - 10.000 BCE
Mesolithic Age: 10.000 - 5.500 BCE
Neolithic Age: 5.500 - 2.500 BCE
Bronze Age: 2.500 - 800 BCE
Iron Age: 800 - 300 BCE
Antique Age: 300 BCE - 500 AD
Middle Age: 500 - 1500 AD
Enlightenment Age: 1500 - 2000 AD

At this point, at the international academic world, England, US, China and earlier Soviet Union had state political strategies which included the destroying and ignoring of the Turkish history and culture with the help of their inferiority scientists with academic masks(whom are intelligence agents in reality). With this goal, they created the 3 root anthropological terms for the defining of human races. We should critisize these terms, because they are very ridiculous, bad intended are used by Turk hating academicians that made up these terms to force the academic world to believe the lies such like there is no such thing as a Turk nation.

Based on Craniometric measurement, human race is divided into these three not logical anthropological terms:

1. Europoid/Caucasoid
2. Mongoloid
3. Negroid

There terms are based on fundamentally desperate mistakes. The name Mongol is being used beginning from the 12th century by Turkish tribes. Before the 12th century there is not found any tribe name in middle age written sources with the word Mongol. First of all the word Mongol does not define the name of a nation. The name of the Mongols during the time of Genghis Khan belongs to the name of a Turkish tribe, or a federation of Turkish tribes. They are descended from the Turks from 6th century. The word Mongol, is just like the words that were used earlier like "Onogur, Kuman, Pechenek, Khazar, Bulgar ve Magyar" the name of a specific group of Turkish tribes(or a federation of Turkish tribes) that united under one roof. After determining these fundamental facts, we can conclude that the anthropological term "Mongoloid" is only being used to confuse the minds of the academic world, because Mongols cant define a race or a nation, Mongols are part of the Turkish/Human nation/race.

And, what should be said about the term Europoid or Caucasoid? If root of these type of skulls are found in Central Asia and the West parts of East Asia, then we should think about what it does mean to give the names of other continents or areas like "Europe" and "Caucasia" to this anthropological term? In here, by using the words Mongoloid and Europoid, the goal is to ignore the word Turk and the Turkish history completely.

The scientists of West Europe, equalize this "Europoid" term with the faked-up science fiction "Indo European" language group. The oldest language of this so called "Indo European" group is being considered the language of the Hittites. But, the reality is, that scientists that are not Turk haters have concluded and accepted, based on their research on the Hittite language, that the Hittite language is just like the Sumerian language a non Semitic and Central Asian originated language. However a group of these scientists use the term "Asian" for the origin of the Sumerian and derived Hittite language, just to not use the term "Turkish". But the fact is that, Hittite language is originated from the root of the Sumerian(Kenger) language. The Sumerian(Kenger) language is a Turkish language that arrived during the early Neolithic Age from Central Asia to the Middle East region. After a couple of thousand years, out of this Sumerian-Turkish language, the root of the languages of modern or close history nations like the Semitics, Germans, Slavs, Latins, Etruscs are created. The groups of people that created these new arised languages, left their original Sumerian-Turkish culture during the Bronze Age and created new cultures, and after these events new nations have arised.

Until now, out of the found written historical sources, the oldest language, alphabet and oldest civilization(people that lived together as one nation with one language under one state) is the Sumerian language, alphabet and civilization. Before the times of the Sumerians there is not found any other language until now. The history of the Sumerians-Kengers are dated approximately to 5000 BCE. The term that is used for the archaeological findings of the people who lived in the same regions(Türkiye, Iraq, Syria) before the Sumerians-Kengers is "Ubaid". When we look at the online academic articles, we see that they say that the origin of the Ubaid archaeological findings is unknown. However, many regions during these early Neolithic Age are left empty. So it should not be a suprise to conlude that if the Ubaid lived just before the Sumerians in the same region as the Sumerians, to say that the Ubaid are the same people as the Sumerians. The so called Ubaid people lived during the period 7000-5000 BCE. If we accept that the Ubaid are Kengers, i think that a group of the Sumerians did migrate from Central Asian and Altai Mountain regions to the Middle East regions during the years between 7000-5000 BCE. The language of these Sumerians was Turkish, and out of this Turkish language during the years between 2000-1000 BCE new languages and alphabets have occurred. The origin of all these languages and alphabets is the Kenger Turkish language.

Prof. Dr. Timur Kocaoğlu mentions in a message of his:

Friends,
The origin of the Phoenician, Sogd, Hebrew, Arabian, Greek, Cyrillic, Etrusc, Latin, Gök Türk alphabets is the Sumerian writing. The Sumerian writing has transformed in a period of 5000 years into other sub alphabets like(3 sub groups):
1. Phoenician, Gök Türk, Etrusc, Runic (Scandinavian) writings (Latin writing is occurred out of the Etruscan writing),
2. Phoenician, Sogd, Arabian, Hebrew alphabets
3. Old Greek alphabet and out of that the Cyrillic alphabet


Finally, as a conclusion we see that the origin of this imaginary language group that is called "Indo European" is the Turkish language. Then, we can safely determine that at least one of the 3 root anthropological skull types should be called Turkoid in stead of Europoid/Caucasoid. And also, like mentioned above, there is no such thing as a Mongolian nation, so the anthropological term Mongoloid does also belong to the Turks. And if there should be made a seperation, we could seperate the Sino-Tibetian language group, and call the anthropological term for them for example as "East Eurasian". But, even during 5000 BCE, in the Neolithic graves of Central and South Europe the Y-DNA haplogroups that are considered as East Eurasian and West Eurasian are found together as one nation with one culture that is the same as the Sumerian culture. I will go in to the details in a moment, but to make a conclusion for now, we can easily say that the Turk Nation had during the Proto Turk period both the Mongoloid and Caucasoid anthropological skull types and genetic Y-DNA haplogroups. This shows clearly that during the period of Proto-Humans, in spite of the genetic mutations that occurred during the Paleolithic Age, between 60.000 - 10.000 BCE, people with Mongoloid and Caucasoid genetic/archaeological structures kept living together before and after the occurrence of the mutations as one Turkish nation.

The enemy intelligence agencies, are openly using "science" as a weapon. We should accept the fact that the biggest fear of US, Russia and China is the inevitably occurence of the Turk Union(Union of many Eurasian countries) in the close feature. For this cause, the intelligence of these enemy states, are using academicians with high status and tasks in the scientific disciplines like "History", "Anthropology" and "Genetics" as their agents, and are using them no matter what it costs to ignore the Turkish history and show the Turkish history as a boogeyman even though it is obviously not. It is also a fact that most of the time these academicians make a fool of their selves, just like in the Armenian modern subject(European Convention on Human Rights obviously accepted that there was no such thing as a genocide, so fight that went on for tens of years was openly a political/intelligence war between the Turks and the US CIA).

I think, that in stead of the terms Europoid/Caucasoid, Mongoloid ve Negroid, the using of these terms is a lot more logical:

1. West Eurasian
2. East Eurasian
3. African

The occurrence of the genetic haplogroups, is dated to tens of thousands of years ago. It is a fact that the people of these periods could not have known the technical details of genetic mutations. Thats why before and after the occurrence of genetic mutations, people with several different haplogroups could have lived together even from the beginning of human history like one nation with one culture. To make a seperation of the ethnic origin of different modern nations, only a seperation based on language and culture can be made.

In here it is important that several families kept living together for tens of thousands of years, altough the occurrence of genetic mutations. The archaeological monument findings dated tens of thousands of years show us only the stamps of middle age Turkish and Proto Turkish people. Because of this, we could easily say that the oldest human culture is equal to modern Turk culture. And according to my determinations, human civilization starts at the regions near the Altai Mountains.

The people whom did not leave this oldest human culture, namely the group of people that continued the Proto Turkish culture and did not create any new cultures, created the Turkish Sumerian-Kenger civilization around 6000-7000 BCE. These Sumerians, came during the Mesolithic Age(10.000 - 5.500 BCE), from the east of Central Asia(the Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Syria way) to the regions of Anatolian Türkiye.

Starting from Anatolian Türkiye region around the early Neolithic age(5500 BCE), migrations occurred to the Caucasus, North and North West of the Black Sea, AND to the South, West and Central/East regions of Europe. The archaeological findings at all these regions, belong to same culture group. For example, from Spain(Els Trocs) to Germany(Linear Band Keramik) and to the Scandinavian regions the same kind of Ceramic cultures are being found. People from all these regions that carry the same culture should be considered as one nation.

After the 3th millenium BCE, back migrations to the Central Asian regions start to happen, and also, we should not forget that there are groups of people(Europoid and Mongoloid) that did not leave the Altai regions during the early Neolithic periods and stayed here for thousands of years. The groups that stayed in the Altai regions and the groups that migrated back to here, created the cultures like Afanasevo, Andronovo, Parkhay in Central Asia. The origin of these cultures are the early Neolithic cultures of the Sumerians and the Linear Band Ceramics of Europe. Out of the Central Asian cultures(Kazakhstan, Türkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Xinjiang, South Siberia, etc..) like Afanasevo and Andronovo, during the period between 1000 - 400 BCE the Sakha(Scythian) and Hunnish civilizations are occurred. Out of the Huns, the Turkish Nation that is being continued until modern nowadays is occurred. The origin of all these cultures(from LBK to Andronovo to Huns and Gok Turks) are the early Sumerians.

Look at what Prof. Dr. Zeki Velidi Togan says about this subject:

The great scholar of Near Eastern ancient history Fr. HOMMEL, in one of his work, he considers the Sumerians completely as a Turkish tribe: "A branch of the oldest ancestors of Turkish tribes, migrated during the period of 5000 BCE from their homeland in Central Asia to the Near East, and have formed the Sumerians." The material and sources that are found of these Sumerians, show us the structure of the Turkish languague of the old Neolithic age. And in another study of his, he explains that 350 words of the Sumerian language are of Turkish origin, he even created a sentence in Sumerian using the Turkish language. It is also a fact that the burial ceremony of the Sumerians is the same as the burial ceremonies of the Scythians and the Huns. There are words in the Elam language similar to Turkish language. The dressage(horse training) in them, the very close kinship degrees between the Hurri language and the Turkish language, and the fact that these Hurri's have the same dressage culture findings as the Huttal Turks of Central Asia and the Selcukids of the Near East, are all trails that show us the history of Proto Turks in the Near East region.


Linguistically, the oldest language of human history belongs to the Turkish language of the Sumerians. If we look at the Indo European theory of Western German, Russian and Chinese academicians, we see that they acknowledge that the oldest Indo European language is the Hittite language.

Academicians that are not Turk haters and do not commit any hate crime against modern day Turks, know very well that the Hittite language is originated out of the Sumerian language, and is just like the Sumerian language of Asian(Turkish) origin. What the Turk haters are doing, is just not to use the word "Turk", and thoroughly they define the origin with sentences like "unknown origin", or "most probably of Indo European origin". All these kind of sentences, have nothing to do with scientific facts and human logical truth, it is just a strategy of how to perform a hate crime.

However, science does not mean to dictate and force the people(the readers, researchers, academicians) to believe into science fictive and made up terms like "Indo European". I deplore and condemn this Turk hating academic world(with Chinese, Russian, German scientists), and i advise my brothers that are seeking to find the real truth, to always firstly approach the hypothesis of these non Turkish scientists with doubt. Just because the Western scientists are concluding about very sensitive historical subject with their made up hypothesis, it does not mean that they are telling the truth, and also these non Turks whom are Turk haters are not GOD, nor are they a Prophet, they cannot force us to accept these hypothesis's that does not sound logically or reasonable.

The root of the political line of the intelligences of USA, Russia and China, is based on the hate crime against Turks, and based on this root, their principles are to at any price ignore and destroy the facts of the complete Turkish history. We as the Noble Turkish Nation, should not loose against these mind games. We should continue the existence of the Noble Turkish Nation and its culture forever, and the Turk Nationalizm(of course without any kind of racism) feelings should never be lost out of our hearths. If they become succesful, then we will unfortunately see the times when brothers will kill their brothers from their back, or when brothers will kill their brothers only for 5 cent of personal egoism centered interests.

Also, we should realize that the terms "Nationalizm" and "Racism" are completely different from each other, and we should never fall into the pitfalls where the generations during the 1970's and 1980's did fall into, in which the USA CIA project members manipulated the brains of our people about these 2 terms.

The German culture that is the root of the USA state is such a big Turk hater, in a devilish way they forced the leftist of the 1970-80's Türkiye to believe in the lie that nationalizm is equal to racism(by washing their brains with the help of the managing traitor sector that is bought with money) and caused for these leftists to stay away from Turkish Nationalism(even though it was a fact that the founder of the CHP party, our great FATHER ATATÜRK was on the greatest Turkish nationalists without any racist feelings in the complete human history).

And with similar tactics, again during the 1970-80's the same USA projects caused for the rightists in Türkiye to believe the lie that nationalism is equal to the racism way of Hitler(by washing their brains with the help of the managing traitor sector that is bought with money). However, the fact is that Turkish Nationalism, has nothing to do with racism or the Hitler racism. And also, Turkish Nationalism is a democratic cause, which causes for the uniting of all people in Türkiye(also people with non Turkish etnic origin are considered the same), but racism means to intentionally cause damage to groups of people with other ethnic origin in a non logical and cold-blooded way. The intentionally damage causing has never ever happened in the Noble Turkish History. Within the history of the Turkish Nation, since the oldest periods of it, people with other ethnic origins always have been given much higher and better rights than that was given to our own people. And in the same time, by doing so, it was also a fact that the defending of Turkish Nationalism and our Turkness was and still is a holy task(for a life with honour and justice) of which there is no example in any other modern nations. With this personality, our ancestors have ruled the world for thousands of years with justice and honour.

To give examples, during the period of our FATHER ATTILA, families with non Turkish ethnic origins had very important positions, and lived rich life's. If we look at the writings in the historical documents of the Roman ambassadors(4th-5th centuries AD) about the Hunnish country life, we can see that people with non Turkish ethnic origins, lived in several villages a fully independent life which they never had lived before in the Roman and Germanic countries. They never encountered any kind of injustice, and lived a honourful life with the condition of not betraying the state. The same situation is for example also seen between the relations of Kubilai Khan and Marco Polo. Someone foreign and poor like Marco Polo whom had no military power, had a life with very important tasks in the Mongol state system, and lived a rich life. Can we see all these noble actions in nowadays Western Europe against the Turks that came working in these countries? No we can not! After the periods of the 16. century of the Ottomans, this tolerance culture was taken to a little further level, by even damaging and making poor the people with Turkish ethnic origins, and on the contrary the greatest part of the people with non Turkish ethnic origins have lived a very rich life. As a conclusion we should acknowledge that Turkish Nationalism is a national and holy value of us, and has nothing to do with any kind of racism.

And also if we look at the names that were given by the Turk hating academicians to the archaeological findings we see that none of them have a Turkish name(except maybe the word kurgan). And shamelessly they conclude that although these archaeological findings obivously represent the Sumerian-Sakha-Hun-Turk culture, that they are of Indo European origin.

If we get back to the study of Orazak Ismagulov named "Physical Anthropology of Kazakh People and their Genesis".

Resim

If we look at the table, we can see that during and before the Bronz Age the skulls that were found in the Kazakhstan region belong 100% to the Europoid craniometric group. The culture that is named Andronovo(and the other cultures that are related to this one) belongs in the time period of the Bronze Age(M.Ö. 2.500 - 800). Until this period, the skulls that were found in the Kazakhstan region were %100 Europoid, and because of this these skulls belong to the same group of skulls that were found in the Neolithic Age of European regions. But, the details of an example which i will analyze later extensively, show us that there are some results during the Neolithic Age, whom show that the Mongoloid ve Europoid haplogroups lived together. For example, between the years 5310 - 4950 BCE, in Spain and Hungary regions, the Y-DNA haplogroup C(C1 and C6) that is considered Mongoloid is found together in the same countries with the Europoid Y-DNA haplogroups like F*, H2, G2a, I, R1b ve T1a. This shows us that during the Neolithic Age of Europe, just like during the other periods of Central Asian and Altaian regions, people with Europoid and Mongoloid skull types and haplogroups lived together as one nation with one culture.

At the table, we see that the Sakha period is 85% Europoid and 15% is Mongoloid. The Hun period is 75% Europoid and 25% is Mongoloid. What does this mean? The oldest origin of nowadays modern Turkish Nation in close history are the Sakha and the Huns, from these results we see that the majority of them belongs to the Europoid skull type. If we build a relationship between Y-DNA and Anthropology, we can see that more than one Y-DNA haplogroups belong to the Europoid and Mongoloid skull types. For example, haplogroups that are considered to belong to the Europoid skull type: "G, J, L, R, T". And haplogroups that are considered to belong to the Mongoloid skull type: "C, D, N, Q".

In the table, during the Gok Turk period 50% is Europoid and %50 is Mongoloid, during the Mongol and the post period 30% is Europoid and %70 is Mongoloid. Of course, these numbers are only associated with the Kazakhstan geography. And also, during the Sakha and Hun periods, the West Part(Central Asia, Kazakhstan, West Mongolia, etc...) of the Altai Mountains contained much more people with Europoid skull type. The East Part(Central and East Mongolia, China, etc...) of the Altai Mountains contained much more people with Mongoloid skull type.

And we should not forget, that during the time(300-500 AD) of our Father Attila, Hunnish Turks from the Altai Mountain(Central Asian) regions migrated heavily to the West Eurasian regions(Caucasia, Byzantines, Central and East Europe). And in the following periods, for example the Khazars constructed a heavy migration the West European regions. And we should also not forget the heavy migrations of the Bulgar, Pechenek, On-Ogur, Magyar and Kuman Turks to the Central European regions. So, if we look at the genetic structure of modern day Eurasia, we should not define the Turkishness(Turk ethnic origin) only with the regions of China, Mongolia and Central Asia.

As we see in the table, during the Sakha and Hun periods, our ancestors had %85-%75 of Europoid skull types. So, this fundamental Europoid group of the Turk/Hun ethnic origin could have migrated almost completely to the West Eurasian regions. And, that could also be the reason, of the drop of the percentage from %85 to %30. During the Selcukid and Mongol periods, we can easily see from the historical documents how massive the migrations were that were performed by the Turkish tribes from Central Asia to the far more West Eurasian regions. During the Selcukid period, almost the whole Oghuz tribe migrated from Central Asia to the Iran and Türkiye regions.

Then again, we should not forget about the Mongol period. For example, it would be a very ridiculous and not logical determination to equal the great Mongol Empire our ancestor Genghis Khan build, only with the people of modern day Mongolia. Today, only 3 million Turks live in Mongolia(Mongols = Turkish tribe). Now, how ridiculous dows it sound to you, to say that there is only 3 million people left from the great Mongol Empire?

To give an example to proof our point, for example, during the 14th century, Chagatai and Ogedai tribes performed a very massive migration to the Ilkhanid regions(Iran, Azerbaijan, Türkiye, etc...). Also, the tribes of the Golden Horde of Jochi, migrated heavily to the regions near Crimea, and from here after a couple of hundred years there was performed another migration to the Ottoman regions of Türkiye. Only the Yuan state of the tribes of Tolui Khan stayed in the Chinese regions(East Eurasian regions). The remaining 3 Genghisid tribes(75%) migrated heavily to the regions near Afghanistan, India, Iran, Azerbaijan, Türkiye and Crimea.

All these migration events caused for the occurence of the %30-%70 Europoid and Mongoloid frequencies in Kazakhstan. Because of this, we should never believe into the LIE of the academic world that says that the Europoid Y-DNA haplogroups are not of Turkish origin.

The people of Turk Nation, at least beginning from the Neolithic Age(5.500 - 2.500 BCE), so beginning from the period of the Sumerians, are the people with Europoid and Mongoloid haplogroups that lived together AS A NOBLE ONE TURKISH NATION.

Like i mentioned above, the archaeological monuments that belong to the period before the Neolithic Age(5.500 - 2.500 BCE) only the Middle Age Turkish stamps and Turkish culture traces was found. because of this, during various periods of the Paleolithic Age(60.000 - 10.000 BCE) all humans were living with the Proto Turk culture(Sumerian-Kenger culture, LBK culture, etc...). Of course, we should think about the IQ level of the people who lived tens of thousands of years ago. Even today, during the modern times we can see so the existance of so many bigots. So, we could determinate that during the Paleolithic Age the majority of the people lived in the same way(with the Proto Turkish culture) and did not create different methods of another culture.

LOOK AT HOW MY FATHER ATATÜRK INGENIOUSLY DETERMINES THE MEANING OF TURKISHNESS:

“Gafil, hangi üç asır, hangi on asır?
Tuna ezelden Türk diyarıdır.
Bilinen tarihler söylememiş bunu.
Kalkıyor örtüler; örtülen doğacak
Dinleyin sesini doğan tarihin:
Aydınlıkta karaltı, karaltıda şafak
Yalan tarihi görüp, doğru tarihe giden.
Asya’nın ortasında Oğuz oğulları
Avrupa’nın Alplerinde Oğuz oğulları
Doğu’dan çıkan biz, Batı’da yine biz,
Nerede olsa, ne olsa kendimizi biliriz.
Hep insanlar kendilerini bilseler
Bilinir o zaman ki hep biriz.
Türk sadece bir milletin adı değil,
TURK IS THE UNITY OF ALL HUMANS
Ey birbirine diş bileyen yığınlar,
Ey yığın yığın insan gafletleri,
Yırtılsın gözlerdeki gafletten perde
Dünya o zaman görecek, hakikat nerede,
Hakikat nerede?”


Also, we should not forget, that according to the genetic studies done on modern day nations, none of nowadays nations strictly belong to only one Y-DNA haplogroup. All nations have many different Y-DNA haplogroup results in many different regions. Lets say that nowadays "A" nation has a haplogroup that is found with %50, and there is another haplogroup found in this "A" nation with 10%. Now if the historical documents obviously show that all of these %60 of "A" nation belong to the same ethnic origin, then which haplogroup should be considered as the real "A" nation, and based on what? What if the ancient dna results of that "A" nation will also have many different haplogroup results? And also, what if the ancient dna results will show a complete different set of haplogroups? And why should the majority frequency define the real origin of the "A" nation? All these logical situations, we need to ask to our selves, and analyze these to find out the real truth.

Then, we should understand the bad intended and cancer goals of the intelligence agencies of the states of the Germans, Russians, and Chinese. At the top, the goal of the CIA, is using the same as the tactics as their agent Peter Alford Andrews used in his studies. Back in the day, Peter Alford Andrews used the historical science as a weapon to shoot our Turkish Nation, and now for the last 10 years, the genetic science is being used in the same way by other agents.

What did Peter Alford Andrews actually do 20-30 years ago? He was saying that he aimed to travel all regions in Türkiye and create an ethnic map of our country. In the ethnic map of this bad intended, sneaky, Turk hating agent provocateur created, groups like the Avshar's, Alevi's, Tahtaci's, Tatar's, Oguz's, Sunni's, etc. all were considered to be of another ethnic origin, and belong to different nations. And this is, exactly what we call an attempt to divide country of Türkiye, if possible they want to divide Türkiye into 1000 groups, so that the period when brothers will kill each other will be created, at least this is what they hoped to achieve since the Turkish War of Independence. It is actually a fact that Peter Alford Andrews made a fool out of his self, because all these groups(Avshar's, Alevi's, Tahtaci's, Tatar's, Oguz's, Sunni's, etc.) are of the same Turkish ethnic origin whom find their roots in the Gok Turks, Huns and the Sakha's.

The same kind of tactics and strategy, was used by inferiority Turk hating CIA agents like Spencer Wells. According to a media report in 2005 of this liar man, in Türkiye there are only %10-15 people that are of Turkish ethnic origin, after all these years we can easily see how ridiculous and wrong his statements were. Like i said, their goal is to divide Türkiye, and they dont care about the facts and the science based on logical truth. People like are using scientific fractions as a political warfare weapon. They know very well that the occuring of the Turkish can not be prevented, but they try every kind of manner to be succesful, but they fail and evil will fail forever. Of course, they did not think that people like us would make such important research, whereas everything seems to be clearly open.

There is another article of Professor Orazak Ismagulov that is translated from the Russian language to the English language: "Population of Kazakhstan from Bronze Epoch to Present (Paleoanthropological research)"

Now, lets start analyzing this article.

The finding that "Mongoloid admixture in anthropological composition of the Saka tribes does not raise any doubts" raises instead curious doubts about the Saka's clamed Irano-linguality, and about the logical Mongoloidness of the Indo-Iranians and their descendents in the next generations.


According to Orazak Ismagulov the Mongoloid skull type that is found in some of the Sakha graves show us clearly that the language of the Sakhas/Scythians is not of Indo-European of Indo-Iranian origin. Like i mentioned above, the thousands of years ago, Turkish Nation consisted of people with Europoid and Mongoloid skull types, and the mix of these two types. Before and after the occuring of the genetic mutations, these people kept living together and performed migrations from the Altai Mountains to the European continent.

Anthropological Determinations about the Andronov Culture

In the Bronze Epoch, in Kazakhstan are typical monuments of the so-called Andronov Culture. They remain as settlements, burials and mines. The main occupations of Andronovans were cattle breeding and hoe agriculture. They were settling on the banks of the rivers and lakes, in places with soil suitable for agriculture. Tens of settlements of that culture were found in Kazakhstan.

The Andronovans pottery is covered with complex ornament of triangles, rhombuses, meanders and other geometrical shapes.

K.V.Salnikov (1967) divided the Andronov Culture into three sequentially superseding each other stages:

-Fedor (18 - 16 centuries BC),
-Alakul (15 - 12 centuries BC) and
-Zamaraev (12 - 8 centuries BC)

For understanding of the features in the historical development of the tribes during Bronze Epoch in Kazakhstan not less important is the study of the origin problem for the Andronov Culture. Most of its monuments are located in the territory of Kazakhstan, they are also widely known beyond its limits.

Small paleoanthropological material from the Bronze Epoch (6 male and 8 female skulls) gave excavation by А. X. Margulan (1950), K.A.Akishev (1959), A.M.Orazbaev (1958) and S.S.Tchernikov (1959) in the Eastern, Central and Northern Kazakhstan. From the craniometrical study of these skulls V.V.Ginzburg discerned among them some variations of the proto-European race, and also more gracialized components, typical for the late Sauromat-Sarmat time. In addition, he emphasized that the population of Kazakhstan is related not only to the population of Southern Siberia and Altai, but also to the eastern Volga (Itil) territories (Ginzburg, 1956, 1958, 1959, 1963). Interesting series (3 male and 2 female skulls) from the Bronze Epoch were received from the excavations by V.S.Sorokin (1962) in Tasty-Butak, near Aktyubinsk. In the V.V.Ginzburg description (1962), the Tasty-Butak skulls have morphological features peculiar to the Mediterranean variation.

Within the limits of the first order race, the craniological type found in the burials is comparatively homogeneous . However, visually classifying individual skulls can attribute them to different versions of the Great Europoid race. Some of them have typical features of the Mediterranean type (female - Belasar [11] fencing 60, male - Nurmanbet [13] burials fencing 3, female - fencings 29 and 40). More often Mediterranean type is found among the entombed in the Nurmanbet[13] burials. and The Andronov type skulls also are observable (male - Kanattas [7] burials fencings 7 and 11, Karaozek [5] burials fencing 2). One skull has well expressed gracilization features of the Central Asian interfluve race (female - Chubartau [6] burials). Other skulls are difficult to differentiate by type.

In spite of the fact that the described skulls originated from different areas of Kazakhstan, they are synchronous and belong to the same Andronov culture.


Like we can see in here, the people of the Neolithic Age Sumerians and the similar cultures(with same origins) of the same period from South to North Europe(LBK, Els Trocs, etc.) and the continuation of these cultures like the Andronovo culture, all have graves with skull types of the different subtypes of the same Europoid skull type. All these are members of the same culture. This shows us, that the Andronovo period will consist of different Europoid Y-DNA haplogroups, and all of these people are the Proto Turks.

As a whole, the ancient Kazakhstan skulls are closer to the Altai Afanasiev culture skulls than from the Minusinsk depression.

According to which the Andronov variation of the proto-European race was formed in the Kazakhstan steppes, and in the territory of Minusinsk depression it is a type of western origin (Debets, 1948).

Therefore it is quite possible that Andronovans were not direct descendants of the Minusinsk depression Afanasievans (Debets, 1948).


Here we see again that in the ancient Altai Mountain and Minusinsk Siberian regions, there could be found many different Europoid haplogroups.

In main morphological attributes the skulls of the Andronov Culture find a close similarity to the skulls of the Tazabagyab Culture, which probably attests to the commonality of their origin.

At the same time should be stated that the close examination of all skulls of the Kazakhstan Neolithic and early Bronze Epoch found anthropological heterogeneity among the ancient Kazakhstanians. Can't be excluded a prospect that accumulation of paleoanthropological material would find other variations of the proto-European races in their composition.


The Tazabagyab culture during 1500 BCE, is found in Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan regions. So, this shows us, that the Turkish culture of the Bronze Age period is found in every region in Central Asia, and the skull types of the skeletons that were found in the graves again show us the sub versions of the main Europoid skull type(and also a mix of Europoid ve Mongoloid skull types). This again proofs that people with different haplogroups lived together(they did not know about the technical results of the genetic mutations and lived together for tens of thousands of years with the same basic physical face type) as one nation the same fundamental phenotype.

Anthropological and Archaeological Determinations about the Sakha Turks

Generally, in an economic - cultural relation the tribes of Saka Culture in the Kazakhstan have much in common with the synchronous tribes of Southern Siberia, Altai and Central Asia.

The paleoanthropological material of the 7th-4th centuries BC (Saka time) is much less numerous than the archeological material. The skulls from the basin of the r. Nura (Central Kazakhstan) were investigated by G.F.Debets (1948), who concluded that they belonged to representatives of Andronov variety.

S.S.Tchernikov's long-term excavation in Eastern Kazakhstan gave a small number of 7th-4th centuries BC (Saka time) skeletons. These materials (8 male and 6 female skulls) were described by V.V.Ginzburg. He attributed most of the skulls to Andronov type, and for some people he has noted an insignificant admixture of Mongoloid race. Similar morphological features have the skulls found in the northeastern part of the (Kazakhstan) republic (Ginzburg, 1961 a, 1961 b, 1963). This listing exhausts published materials about 7th-4th centuries BC (Saka time) anthropology in Kazakhstan.

Individual description of skulls also shows that the anthropological type of Tasmolin Culture tribes included a Mongoloid admixture. The influence of Mongoloid gene on the local Caucasoid population has been also noted in other series of skulls of that time (Debets, 1948; Ginzburg, 1961).

Thus, the tribes of 7th-4th centuries BC (Saka time) in anthropological relation were not homogeneous. But nevertheless a prevailing component during that period was an ancient Kazakhstan Caucasoid type and forms close to it.

These attributes allow us to confidently state that the base of the physical shape of tribes in question is the ancient Kazakhstan (Andronov) type, widely spread in the Kazakhstan territory still in the 17th-8th centuries BC (Bronze Epoch). Hence, the Kazakhstan inhabitants of the 7th-4th centuries BC (Saka time) were direct descendants of the ancient local population that had, as is known, sharply expressed Caucasoid features. The continuity is also supported by numerous data of the material culture of that time. However, there are also some special morphological features in the anthropological type of the population of that epoch.

The analyzed data shows that in the anthropological base of the Saka tribes in Kazakhstan mainly lays the physical type of local Andronov culture population, which by the studied period had already absorbed elements of the Mongoloid race. Hence, the process of a mestization within local inhabitants of the Kazakhstan began not later then the Saka time (7th-4th centuries BC).


Already during the Sakha period, people with Europoid and Mongoloid skull types lived together as one nation. And during 5000 BCE, in the Hungary and Spain regions the haplogroups that are considered Europoid and Mongoloid were found in the people that belonged to the same nation with the same culture.

Anthropological and Archaeological Determinations about the Hun Turks

Usuns, a kindred of Ku-Süns (Kushans), migrated to Jeti-Su under a pressure from Huns (Süns), numbering about 100,000 families. In the Jeti-Su they took overlordship over existing Kangar and Pamirian populations, establishing a fairly stable commonwealth with combined population of about 600,000. The Türkic Kangars, themselves a heterogeneous conglomerate of Türkic tribes, and the Türkic Usuns re-distributed pastures, and continued their similar, but not identical kurgan burial traditions that left for us monuments to study. Not much difference can be detected anthropologically when the kindred Kangars and Usuns blended, each one bringing into the union the traces of their specific admixtures. A third component of the Usun society are the Pamir aboriginals, who brought into the blend Iberian-type admixture.


U-sün: The name of a tribe of the Hunnish Turks. Sün = Hun, then "U-Sün" could mean White Hun
Kangar: The name of a tribe of the Hunnish Turks. The name Kangar(Kenger) was also the name of which the Sumerians called theirselves.
Pamir aboriginals: It is generally an accepted fact in the academic world that the Dravidian and Turkish languages contain very similar elements. In this period the Pamir Mountains is again full with Dravidians of Turkish ethnic origin.

About this subject, Zeki Velidi Togan says:

In the Tianshan regions were the old Sakha's ruled there was a tribe called Usun, they were neighbours of the Sakha's, they are seen in the 3th century BCE together with the Hun, Yuechi and other tribes. Among the Usuns there was an older version of the Grey Wolf tradition. According to Turkish rumors, Usuns are just like in the history the ancestors of the İgrek and Çigrek tribes(İgrak and Çıgrak). The Usuns were probaby a part of the ancestors of the Gok Turks. Although they were nomads, they had a capital and cities. Their capital was the Yavgu city near the Issık-Göl, and this capital was continued until the 11th century. The Usuns became firstly part of the Huns, and then part of the Siyenpi's.

In the region of the Usuns, in East Tianshan, there lived a tribe that is named Abdal or Heptal(Eftalit)(White Huns), and they were considered the ancestors of the Karluk and the Kencine Turks, the other name of then in Chinese regions was called Hua. The Heptals became a strong force at 425 AD, they migrated to West Turkistan, and from there to the Amuderya, they conquered the lands of the Yuechi(a tribe of them was the Kushans) and they stroke against the Sassanid Iran. In 427 they made wars against the Sassanid king Behram, and in 465 Sassanid Feyruz became king of Iran with the help of the the Heptals(Abdals/Eftalits/White Huns). They contacted with the Chinese and in the Indian regions they caused for many situations, and finally Penjab was conquered. In the region of their capital Balch, near Kunduz there was occured a city named Varvalis(Valvalic). The Heptals, also conquer the countries of the Usuns, and finally the Usuns loose their political importance. So, the rule of the Abdals(Heptals/Eftalits/White Hun), began from Indian regions to the east in Khoten, and north in Chungaria regions.


Begmyrat Gerey:

A couple of Sumerologs, said that the Sumerian language was present in india before the Aryans were here and their language was of the Ural-Altai type like the language of the DRAVIDA's which caused for them to conclude that the Sumerians came from the South of Iran to Mezopotamia.


As a whole, the series of male skulls occupy an intermediate position between the races of the first order, with Caucasoid prevailing over Mongoloid attributes.

Thus, the summarized and individual race-typological characteristic of the skulls shows that Jeti-Su Usuns belonged to the big Caucasoid race with a Mongoloid admixture.


The majority of the Hunnish Turks in Kazakhstan had the Europoid skull type, but there were also some with the Mongoloid skull type.

The results of compiled data for the 3rd c. BC - 4th c. AD (Usun time)'s skulls do not contradict our general concept about Jeti-Su Usuns.

The Caucasoid base of that time population's anthropological type in Kazakhstan does not raise doubts. Much more difficult is a narrower sub-classification of their racial affiliation.

The anthropological type of the 3rd c. BC - 4th c. AD (Usun time) population cannot be attributed to neither the ancient Kazakhstan or Andronovo type, nor to the type ("race" in author's terminology) of the Middle Asian interfluvial, nor to other variations of the overall Caucasoid race.

By a number of high taxonomic value attributes the joined groups of 3rd c. BC - 4th c. AD (Usun time) occupy an intermediate position between the named types. Probably, this is explained by the state that they were an intermediate link that connected, on one hand, more ancient Caucasoid (Andronov) type, with the Middle Asian interfluvial and S. Siberian type on another hand.

The initial form of the Kazakhstan population racial type at that time should be classed as an ancient Kazakhstan anthropological type, being one form of the proto-Caucasoid ("proto-European" in author's terminology) race. Hence, the basic physical form of the Usun time tribes (3rd c. BC - 4th c. AD) was formed on the basis of ancient local population, Caucasoid in its racial type. The Mongoloid admixture found in the anthropological composition of the population of that time was still not significant, but already a somewhat larger than during the Saka time (7th-4th centuries BC). During the Usun period, individuals with Mongoloid features are encountered much more often than during the Saka period.

And the continuity between populations of Saka and 3rd c. BC - 4th c. AD (Usun time) is confirmed equally by paleoanthropological and archeological data.

In the anthropological composition of the Kazakhstan population during that period transpires a parallel development of two racial types: on one hand, on the basis of local inhabitants develop the tribes of the Sako-Usun type, on the other hand develop the tribes of Sauromat-Sarmat type, whose genetic roots extend to the 17th-8th centuries BC (Bronze Epoch) in the Lower Itil region. The later destiny of the Western Kazakhstan Sarmatians is closely linked with the ethnic history of medieval Kazakhstan tribes.


During the Antique age(300 BCE - 500 AD), the different versions of the Sakha, Hun and Sarmat types lived together as one nation in Kazakhstan. This also proofs that the origin of them lies in the Turkish Sumerians(Kengers/Kangars) from the early Neolithic Age. At the end of the Bronze Age, out of the Kenger-Turk language many different languages and cultures were created, and in time when the AD periods began, these process of the creation of the different nations became complete.

Anthropological and Archaeological Determinations about the Gok Turks

The majority of kurgans are of medium size. They had earthen or stone embankments. But the burial ritual is not uniform, mostly the burials were made in pit grave, not infrequently in a wooden boxes, sometimes in a pit with a side chamber. Also is recorded cremation (Ageeva, Maksimova, 1959; Arslanova, 1964). In burial entombments were buried one or two diseased, the skeletons are extended in supine position, on the back, with head toward the west or northeast.
The burial inventory is presented by typical objects of arms and daily life. The composition of inventory depend on sex of the buried. So, in male burials were found iron knifes, iron and bone arrow tips. Female burials most often contained objects of daily life (iron knifes, awls), toiletry (iron scissors and mirrors), and ornaments (bracelets, earrings, and beads). Both in male and female burials very frequently are harness accessories, ceramics with simple or complex geometrical ornament, and wooden utensils with bones of domesticated animals.


Most of the paleoanthropological material was found from S.Tchernikov excavations in Eastern Kazakhstan. The skulls found by him belong to the Kimak Türks. A modest series of the 6th - 11th centuries AD (Türkic time) is also available from the Northern and Western Kazakhstan. These materials are described by V.V.Ginzburg (1958, 1960, 1963). He encountered different degrees of anthropological composition of the 6th - 11th centuries AD (Türkic time) population. So, the nomadic Türks of Eastern Kazakhstan had a bigger Caucasoid admixture than the nomadic Türks of Northern Kazakhstan. The last had a well expressed intermediate features of S. Siberian race, which in essence is a result of mixture of the early Türkic nomadic tribes with local inhabitants of Kazakhstan and Southern Siberia (Ginzburg, 1956, 1960, 1963).


In an ancient Y-DNA haplogroup study(Keyser-2009) about South Siberia with only a little sample size like 10 samples, during 1800 BCE - 400 AD there was found 1 x C(xC3) and 9 x R1a. In here, i think the South Siberian type that Orazak Ismagulov is talking about could be consisted of R1a and C(xC3).

The skull type of the Kimak tribe of the Gok Turks from East Kazakhstan, had a much more Europoid type(studies of S.Tchernikov), and the Kimaks had a much more different kind(degrees) of Europoid skull types. This shows that there could be found different Europoid Y-DNA haplogroups. In the next part i will go into the details of it, but to give a summary, in nowadays Kazakhstan, there is found in some Kazakh tribes with frequencies the Europoid Y-DNA haplogroups G and T. These kind of different Y-DNA haplogroups that are considered to be Europoid could be found in the ancient Kimak Turks.

A visual observation of the skulls also displays a heterogeneity of the anthropological composition of Jeti-Su Türks. Among them are the skulls of both Caucasoid, and Mongoloid character. Individual skulls obviously express simultaneously the Caucasoid features and Mongoloid attributes.


A significant paleoanthropological material on Türkic tribes is from Pavlodar Irtysh area.

A significant paleoanthropological material on Türkic tribes is from Pavlodar Irtysh area. Here in the 1960 -1961. F.Kh. Arslanov uncovered 37 skeletons from five burials. All of them were in a fair state of preservation. The skulls from the burials near villages Trofimovka, Bobrovka and Pokrovka are dated 7th - 9th centuries AD, and the skeletons from burials at state farm Jdanovka and village. Leontievka are dated 10th-12th centuries AD. All these burials F.Kh. Arslanov (1964, 1968) considered as the monuments belonging to the Kimaks.
Individual sizes of the studied skulls from Pavlodar Irtysh area are listed in the Appendix (see Table. 3).

During excavation of burials near villages Trofimovka, Bobrovka and Pokrovka were found 10 skeletons (4 male and 6 female). These numbers, certainly, are not sufficient for a full representation about anthropological composition of the buried. However for a general concept average sizes for the group can be used, where the male series of skulls is characterized by high linear dimensions of the brain box, brachicranial type, relatively wide forehead, medium high and wide face skeleton, medium -profiled in a horizontal plane, moderately expressed nose bridge, weakly protruding nasal bones, wide and low eye-sockets.

The average sizes of female group (accounting for sexual distinctions) correspond with the males, but with some deviations. So, female face is higher; dacrial and symotic dimensions are well expressed, nose angle considerably higher.

Both male, and female groups by the majority of high taxonomic value attributes are at a junction of Caucasoid and Mongoloid racial types. A typological observation of Irtysh skulls also points to intermediate character of morphological features of the buried. Generally, they have inherent Caucasoid features, but with various degrees of admixture of Mongoloid elements (Ismagulov, 1969).


Another craniological series of the 10th - 12th centuries AD from Pavlodar Irtysh area is represented by 26 skulls (15 male, 10 female and one child). This series is mostly from a necropolis located at 3rd branch of Jdanov state farm, and partly from necropolis near village Leontjevka. Averaged sizes of skulls with some measurements are listed in the Appendix (see Table. 4) (not sited here).
The male group have medium longitudinal and large crosswise diameters, hence, have a brachicranial index, relatively low hight of the crania, medium sloped and moderately wide forehead, high and very wide face medium -profiled in a horizontal plane, high value for the nose bridge, strongly protruding nose, medium high and relatively wide eye-sockets.

The average sizes in female skulls mostly coincide with the male skulls (considering gender dimorphism), but in female group the face skeleton is flatter in a horizontal plane and nose less protruding (i.e., female faces are more doll-like and cute, but in Russian anthropological tradition females are found to be more Mongoloid than their brothers).

A series as a whole belongs to a great Caucasoid race, but at the same time the fang indentations are not deep, the face skeleton is relatively high and wide, and moderately flat in a horizontal plane, which indicates a Mongoloid admixture.

This obsevation is also confirmed by a typological analysis. So, it is easy to find representatives of two big races among the skulls: Caucasoid and Mongoloid. Most (16 skulls) belong to Caucasoid race, some from them remind softened Andronov-type skulls. Six skulls are judged to be Mongoloid, but even they are not totally homogeneous. First, among them we discerned brachicranial and mezocranial types. Two female skulls of the mixed type is difficult to attribute in greater detail. A female skull from a burial near village Leontievka also has mixed attributes.


In South Kazakhstan, out of the 22 Gok Turkish Kimak tribe, %73 has the Europoid type, and 27% has the Mongoloid type. In here, people with Europoid and Mongoloid skull types belong many other subtypes. This again shows that several Y-DNA haplogroups could be found. In this example, it shows that the Kimak's could have several Europoid Y-DNA haplogroups.

The information Zeki Velidi Togan gives about the Kimak Turks:

The Akkoyunlu's, are of the Oghuz and also of the Kimak-Kipchak Bayandir tribe.

That the Bayandir tribe of the Kimak's were also part of the Khan's, was seen in the ancient Oghuz saga's.

The Eastern Oghuz groups were the Bayaut's(Bayat's). They were among the Mongols called Mongols and among the Oghuz and Kimak's they were called Turks.

What we see about the Kipchak-Kangli-Kimak-Kun and Kuman's, is that they are the root of the Turkish tribes of West Turkistan and East Europe.

During the Hun periods at BCE times, The Hun state was a community consisted of Yugur(Ogur) tribes that were the Oghuz politcal tribes, and the name of these communities was called Kun.
About the language subject could also be thought the same things. In East Europe, that there Lir-Turkish speaking people among the Yugurs(Ogurs) is seen from the tribe and group names in the historical documents, i mentioned this above as Ogur-Yugur. But, there is also evidnce that the actual Ogur dialects were the same as the Shaz-Turkish that lived during the Great Hun Empire of BCE times. The name of Attila's son was Dengiz, and not Dengir.

Just like the Kipchaks in East Europe, the language of the Kun's that came from North China had close similarities with the Oghuz dialect, the evidence for this was found in the Mahmud Kashgari source. But, the East Kun's were an Oghuzes group that were part of the older Hunnish periods.


One more small group of skulls (4 males and 1 female) from burial Shilikarym in the East Kazakhstan province, excavated by A.M.Orazbaev in 1958. Unfortunately, the dating of the skeletal material was not nearly exact, presumably it is 10th-12th centuries. This circumstance forces to describe each skull individually (see Appendix, Table 5) (not sited in this posting).

As a whole it turns out that in the extensive territory of Kazakhstan the mestization process of a local population was proceeding differently in time and territorially, which is demonstrated by the paleoanthropological materials listed in Tables 8-9. The data in the tables show that the Pavlodar Irtysh area skulls of 10-12 centuries we investigated still had predominantly the features of the Caucasoid race. This sole group differs from other local groups by a relatively high concentration of Caucasoid components. Similar Caucasoid features are also noted in a series of skulls from Eastern Kazakhstan (Ginzburg, 1956) and Jeti-Su (Ismagulov, 1968). The distinctions between them are insignificant and are boil down to more mixed features in the Jeti-Su series than in Eastern Kazakhstan. At the same time, greater similarities exist between the compared Türkic groups of southeast Kazakhstan than the distinctions. Generally, anthropological type of the population of the southeast part of Kazakhstan during that period the Caucasoid race prevailed above Mongoloid race.


From the averages follows that the summary series of the 6th - 11th centuries AD (Türkic time) belonged to the morphological feature complexof the big Caucasoid race. But at the same time in a number of high taxonomic value attributes the skulls of that epoch occupy an intermediate position between the first order races.


Ortalama olarak Gök Türklerin kafa tası tipinin temelinde Europoid tipi var. Buna ek olarak Europoid temelli kafa taslarında bazı Mongoloid özellikler görülüyor.

As an average, the fundamental root of the Gok Turk skulls is the Europoid type. In addition the skulls with Europoid roots also have some Mongoloid features.

Sarkel was a city in N.Pontic that belonged to Khazars and later Bulgaria and Rus, and was populated by a sequence of Türkic peoples from Hunno-Bulgars and Khazars to Kumans, Alans and Oguzes. People buried in "Small Kurgans" may be assessed in accordance with S.A.Pletneva's ethnic classification of burials, with all its caveats.

We also compared the skulls of the 6th - 11th centuries AD (Türkic time) of Kazakhstan and the skulls from the nomadic burials of the (Kalinovsky necropolis) and Sarkel (small kurgans), described by V.V.Ginzburg (1959) as Caucasoid, but with a Mongoloid admixture. It turned out that the skulls from Kazakhstan in all complex of attributes occupy an intermediate position between them, but in a number of attributes they are closer to the Sarkel nomads than to the east of Itil area nomads.


The Gök Türk skulls, had similarities with the skulls of the Khazar Empire and the Bulgars of the city Sarkel, and they belonged to the Europoid type.
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TurkmenCopur
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Kayıt: 29 Eki 2010, 17:26

Re: Turk Nation: Anthropology-Archaeology-Genetic-Haplogroup

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 13 Nis 2015, 00:22

En son 2015'te yayınlanmış çok önemli bir çalışmanın(Afanasyev GE, S. Wen, Tong, S., Wang, L., L. Wei, Dobrovol'skaya MV DS Korobov, IK Reshetov, Lee H .. Khazar Confederates in the Don basin / / Pure research methods and the paradigm of modern archeology. M. 2015. S.146-153.)(Афанасьев Г.Е., Вень Ш., Тун С., Ван Л., Вэй Л., Добровольская М.В., Коробов Д.С., Решетова И.К., Ли Х.. Хазарские конфедераты в бассейне Дона // Естественнонаучные методы исследования и парадигма современной археологии. М. 2015. С.146-153.) sonuçlarını kısaca aktarmak istiyorum, sonra bu konunun ayrıntılarını burada paylaşacağım. M.S. 700-900 yılları arasında yaşamış olan Hazar Türk'ü atalarımızın mezarlıklarındaki iskeletlerde bulunan Y-DNA haplogruplar G, J2a ve R1a1. Buradaki G ve J2a sonuçları aslında çok önemli sonuçlar ve gösteriyor ki Türk Milleti'nin temelini teşkil eden tarihi Türk Boylarında Batı Avrasyalı antropolojik tipine mensup Y-DNA haplogruplar çoğunlukta bulunuyor! Bahsettiğim iskeletlerin bağlı bulunduğu kültürün adı Saltovo-Mayaki kültürü. Bu kültür, Hazar ve Bulgar Türk Boyları gibi Hun Türkleri'nin temelini teşkil eden aşiretlere/boylara aittir. Bu aşiretler ve boyların adı tarihi belgelerde genelde Ogur olarak geçiyor, ve alt grupları da On-Ogur, Sarogur, Ağaçeri, Kutrigur, Başgur, Eftalit(Ak-Hunlar) gibi isimlere sahip ve bütün bu aşiretler Hun-Türk Milleti'nin TEMELİNİ OLUŞTURMAKTADIR! Ve bu sonuçlar gösteriyor ki, gelecekte yapılacak olan tarihi dna çalışmalarında Türkiye ve İran-Azerbaycan Türklerinde olduğu gibi Hun-Türk Milleti'nin temelini oluşturan atalarımızın genlerinde çoğunlukta Batı Avrasyalı haplogruplar mevcuttu, bunlar E, G, H, I, J, L, R, T harfleriyle anılan haplogruplardır ve tek bir Antropolojik grubun mensuplarıdır(Batı Avrasyalı kafatası tipi).

Dashtseveg Tumen

-National University of Mongolia
-Internationally known and respected anthropologist/archaeologist

Article Name: "Anthropology of Archaeological Populations from Northeast Asia"

Anthropological comparative studies of the archaeological populations from Northeast Asia through of time from Neolithic up to medieval period show that the prehistoric populations from region were great heterogeneity of anthropological traits.

In the Neolithic and Early Bronze age, Xiongnu period the territory of Kazakhstan, Altai mountain, South Siberia, Xinjiang and Western Mongolia was inhabited by people with Caucasoid or Mongoloid and Caucasoid mixed anthropological features while the Baikal region, East Mongolia and Inner Mongolia were occupied by populations with developed Mongoloid anthropological traits.


The regions were the Europoid and Mongoloid skull types were found during the Neolithic Age(M.Ö. 5.500 - 2.500), Bronz Age(M.Ö. 2.500 - 800) and Hun Period(M.Ö. 400 - M.S. 300):

Europoid(root: Europoid, there are also people with additionally Mongoloid small features): Kazakhstan, Altai Republic, South Siberia, Xinjiang, West Mongolia
Mongoloid: Baikal Region, East Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Region

Archaeological studies reveal that during the Bronze and Early Iron Age (3rd millennium – 3rd century BC) there were significant cultural differences between the western and eastern parts of Mongolia (Volkov 1967, 1981; Novgorodova 1987; 1989, Erdenebaatar 2002).

In western Mongolia, a culture associated with stone kurgans, deerstone monuments, and rock art was widely distributed.

The western Mongolian Bronze and Early Iron Age culture belongs to the Altai‐Sayan variant of the south Siberian Bronze and Iron Age culture (Tseveendorj, 1980, Tseveendorj and et.al 2003; Erdenebaatar, 2002; Volkov, 1967; Novgorodova, 1987).

However, remains dated to the Bronze and Early Iron Age in eastern and central Mongolia are characteristic of the so‐called slab grave culture: rectangular enclosures built using stone slabs set on edge, sometimes grouped in cemeteries.

The slab grave culture was widely distributed, not only all over eastern and central Mongolia, but also in surrounding areas, from the Lake Baikal region in the North to the Ordos in the South, as well as from the Khangai mountains in the west to Manchuria in the east.


In West and East Mongolia, during the years between 3000 – 200 BCE, 2 different cultures were present according to Dashtseveg Tumen. Lets analyze the culture in West Mongolia:

-Stone Kurgans
-Deerstone Monuments
-Rock Art

About this subject(West Mongolian culture), Servet Somuncuoğlu and Kazım Mirşan has done many very important studies. In the Rock Art's of tens of thousands of years ago, at the Rocks there were found the symbols of Middle Age Turkish tribes in the regions from East Eurasia to West Eurasia.

Ali Ahmetbeyoğlu:

The Husn came to the Goth countries. According to the ancient historian Priskos, the barbarian tribe of them lived at the other end of the Maeotis swamp. When their population number increased, they attacked the neighbouring people. They only did hunting, and did not know of anything else. The hunters of this tribe, all of a sudden came across a female deer. This female deer showed them from the swamps(they thought it was not possible to pass) the way to the Scythian country. Then the female deer was not seen anymore. I think that they produce their origins from this deer and they do this because of the jealousy of the Scyhtians. They did not know there was a world after they passed the Maeotis. They were admiring the Scythian country and went to it, as if they were professionals although they never came to this country, but they were guided by a holy power and went back to their nation. They informed them about the events, and they praised Scythia. They convinced their nation, and went fastly to Scythia from the road they learned from the female deer.

This legend was produced during the times when the Huns whom lived at the Maeotis swamp in the South Russia(Azov Sea) region conquered the country of the Scythians and went further West.

In here we see, that the "Deer" is a very important animal for the Western Huns, and they even believed that their origins were produced from the female deers. Also, in the ancietn source "Secret History of Mongols", it is written that the ancestors of Genghis Khan:

Çinggis Khan's ancestors were created by ALMIGHTY GOD of a Grey Wolf, and his wife was a female deer. They came crossing the sea. They settled in the region between the Onan river and near the Burhan-Haldun Mountain, and had a son named Bataçihan.


Like we can see, just like the Gok Turks, the Mongols do believe they are originated from a Grey Wolf. Additionally, the Mongols and the Western Huns believe they are originated from a female deer. Thats why we also should repeat the fact that Mongols are not a different nation, they are a tribe of the great Turkish Nation.

What does all of this mean? The basic ingredients of the culture of West Mongolia that Dashtseveg Tumen is talking about, is seen in the historical documents of the Western Huns, Gok Turks and the Mongols. Again, according to Dashtseveg Tumen, the Proto Turk people(5.500 BCE - 300 AD) that lived in the Western parts of the Altai mountains, had the Europoid(=Caucasoid=West Eurasian) skull type(the root of it). This shows that that if there will be done genetic studies on these Western parts, there will be found Europoid Y-DNA haplogroups.

And i think, that both the East and West Mongolian cultures are originated from the Sumerian culture, because like i said before, at 5000 BCE in Hungary and Spain, people with Mongoloid and Europoid Y-DNA and MT-DNA haplogroups lived together and their cultures were the Linear Band Keramik(LBK). A short example: at 5000 BCE in Hungary the Mongoloid Y-DNA C6 and MT-DNA K1a is found. And in the 5000 BCE Germany we find the MT-DNA K1a, and the Y-DNA of this person is G2a. So, even at the Neolithic period, people with Mongoloid and Europoid types lived together as one nation with one culture(and had similar phenotypes).

Neolithic populations

Due to obtained craniofacial data the Neolithic Afanasev population from Altai mountain characterize Caucasoid anthropological features while studied Neolithic populations from Inner Mongolia, Baikal lake region show typical mongoloid anthropological features. Nevertheless most taxonomic traits of some skulls from Kharagol site of Afanasev culture of Altai mountain demonstrate their mongoloid features.

Resim


The fact that the Yakutistan regions belongs to the Mongoloid group(East Mongolian culture), shows at that during these Neolithic ages here was found Y-DNA haplogrup N. And the Europoid group(West Mongolian culture) is a group that exists between Turkmenistan and West Mongolia, and it is most probably that in these regions different Europoid Y-DNA haplogroups could be found.

Bronze and Early Iron age

People with Caucasoid and mixed morphological features inhabited Altai mountain region, Xingjian while population with developed Mongoloid traits occupied Buryatia (population from Glazkov culture)
and warring state population from Inner Mongolia. However, some skulls among of the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age crania from Altia mountain exhibit more pronounced Mongoloid morphological features than seen in earlier times.

Resim


During the Bronze and early Iron Age, there were 3 kinds of Europoid skull types. Europoid Group 2 is similar to the genetic data given in Keyser 2009 about South Siberia. The regions of Europoid Group 1 and especially of Europoid Group 3 are different than the region of Europoid Group 2. This again shows us that more than one Europoid Y-DNA haplogroups could be found among them(except the already found R). The same does count for the Mongoloid Groups 1 and 2.

Due to obtained results the Xiongnu sample from Altai characterize more pronounced caucasiod features than Xiongnu samples from Buryatia.

The clustering of Xiongnu populations from Inner Asia clearly displays that Xiongnu anthropologically were very heterogeneous and at least there were six anthropological types for the Xiongnu population.

Resim

Cluster 1:
The first cluster includes Usunians from Semirechiya (Central Asia) and East Kazakhstan, xiongnu‐sarmatians from Altai high mountain, Turkic from Tuva.

Cluster 2:
Xiongnu of Kirgizstan, Central and West Tuva, Xiongnu‐sarmatians from Chui river basin, Altai mountain, sarmatians from West Kazakhstan, usunians from North Kazakhstan and Turkic from West Siberia include to the second subcluster.

Cluster 3:
The third cluster contains usunians from Tyani‐Shani mountain region and populations from xiongnu‐sarmat period of Fergan valley, Tajikistan and West Turkmenistan.

Cluster 4:
All Xiongnu populations from Xingjian, Mongolia and Altai mountain belong to fourth cluster.

Cluster 5:
The fifth cluster includes mokhe people from Primor’e, xianbei from Inner Mongolia and Transbaikalia, and xiongnu from Transbaicalia ans Cis‐Baikalia.

Cluster 6:
The population from xiongnu period of Chukotka locate separate position in the cluster showing relationship between compared Asian populations from Xiongnu period.


Within the Asian Huns, there were 6 types of the Mongoloid and Europoid skull types. According to Orazak Ismagulov, during the Hun period of Kazakhstan the Huns had %75 Europoid type. If we consider the same in here, we should assume that at least 3-4 types of the main Europoid skull type does exists. This again shows that there should be found more than one Y-DNA haplogroups.

Based on the results of archaeological studies of Xiongnu in Mongolia, Ts.Turbat (2004) concluded that Xiongnu culture was created on the basis of mixture and combination of the Iron Age Slab graves culture and the culture of early nomads of North China. This process developed during 4th–3rd century BC (Turbat, 2004).


Like i said before, if good minded experts will research these two different cultures(West and East Mongolia), i think for sure both would have their origins traced in the early Neolithic Sumerians.
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Re: Turk Nation: Anthropology-Archaeology-Genetic-Haplogroup

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 13 Nis 2015, 01:41

Now, lets look at the study of Atilla Grandpierre named "ANCIENT PEOPLE OF THE ROYAL MAGI: THE MAGYARS".

Seven thousand years ago, these Magi built the first Sun temples in the Carpathian Basin, the first temples in Central Asia, and the stone-circles all over the world. These Magi carried mankind’s ancient knowledge, which goes back to the era of man’s evolution, millions of years ago. (Leakey Lewin, 1986, 235; GKE és GA, 2006, 104-110; GA, 2006, 19-31). Price and his colleagues (2001) write that Europe can thank the people of the Linear Band Ceramics for, among others, the sciences of agriculture, architecture, burials, refined pottery and high quality stonework.


As we have seen in the introduction, these facts are characteristic of the activities of the Magi and culture-heroes. Most researchers place the culture of Linear Band Ceramics to the Starcevo-Körös Culture, in the territory of today’s Northern Serbia and Hungary. According to Haak and colleagues (2005), the source of origin of the Linear Band Ceramics and the linear decorated pottery of the Hungarian Lowlands (Alföld) is today’s Hungary and Slovakia. Considering that Slovakia and Northern Serbia did not exist in the 6th millennium B.C., we find the term Carpathian Basin to be more accurate and true to the age. Many researchers consider the culture of Linear Band Ceramics to be the creation of the indigenous population of the Carpathian basin (Linear Pottery Culture, 2006).


A group of people whom have the same culture, from 7000 years ago, create stone monuments in the complete Eurasian regions. These people are the people that continue the memory and culture of the first humans. Like i said before, in spite of the occurence of genetic mutations, these people that went through these genetic mutation process were from the same Turk Nation and lived together before and after the mutations. The period that Atilla Grandpierre is talking about, is also the same period as when the Sumerians migrated from Central Asia to the Middle East regions. So, it means that the people of the Proto Turkish Sumerians migrated to the Middle East, and also to the West, Central(and South) and East of Europe in these periods. The Linear Band Ceramics(LBK) culture has the same origins and is a variant of the Sumerian culture, and is located in the Neolithic Age of Europe(between Germany and Hungary regions).

The continuity of the people of the Linear Band Ceramics in the Carpathian Basin was essentially unbroken. The first arrow-making people lived here at least from 34,000 B.C. and, in the first millennium A.D., the Hun-Magyar people, who lived here, were still outstanding archers. From 33,000 B.C. to today these people have also been masters of the art of animal representation, and the tongue-duct flute (GKE-GA, 2006, 228), and they were the people of the Magi from the vast ages of the ancient past to the second millennium B.C. (Ibid. 78-103; 177-184). This continuity is shown by the Scythian cone-shaped head-gear, which represents the sun-rays, emerging in a cone-like manner from the Sun (Singh, 1993, 74) beginning in the 6th millennium B.C. to present-day Hungary.


After the periods of the Linear Band Ceramics culture people and the Sumerians, this has been continued until the the times of the Sakha and Huns.

Following the culture of the Linear Band Ceramics (Keys, 2005), Europe’s first churchbuilding people started out from the Carpathian Basin, in the 6th millennium B.C., followed by the people of the scepter in the 6-3 millennium B.C. (Govedarica, 2004, see below), and the Cucuteni Tripolje Culture, which is contemporary with the Scythians (5,500- 2,400 B.C.; GKE-GA 2006, 20-23). Then came the builders of Stonehenge, who are called the Bell Beaker people, named after the Scythian cultic drinking vessels (Price et al., 2004), or the bell-shaped drinking vessels, who were buried with royal scepters during the time period of 3,100-1,600 B.C. (GKE-GA, 2006, 25-28), or between 2,800-1,900 B.C.; the people, who built stone circles, similar to Stonehenge and later known as Scythian stone circles, from 4,800 B.C. to 500 A.D., who lived in the Carpathian Basin, and the Central European Royal Magi, who wore the characteristic pointed head-gear of the Scythian Magyars lived there too, in the 2-1 millennium B.C.. (Menghin, 2003; Paterson, 2002; GKE-GA 2006, 31-39)


The Linear Band Ceramics culture(5500 BCE), continues until the Cucuteni Tripolje culture(2400 BCE) period. The Cucuteni Tripolje culture is at the same period of the Proto Sakha and Hun periods, so he talks about the starting period of the Andronovo like cultures. Between the Linear Band Ceramics and Andronovo culture there appear other variants of them in European regions(like the Bell Beakers).

Methodological remarks concerning the establishment of the Magyar-Hun-Scythian culture’s chronology In recent centuries, it has become customary, in the western and the official Hungarian historiography, to squeeze the culture that the Greeks called „Scythian” into a time frame of a few centuries. Today, this most often means the 8-5 centuries B.C. (Kemenczei, 2002, 67.). This has partly methodological reasons. Modern archaeology makes judgments according to the characteristic features of the excavated objects. With the advancement of technology, new materials and methods merge in the formation of materials, in the discovery of new fashions and new characteristics. Based upon these methods, the unified culture of the same people can also be fragmented. For example the Hungarian people, proceeding backwards in time, may be called the people of computers, a few decades earlier the people of television, even before that, the people of radio, and so on. In reality the cultures used to be divided in a similar manner. In broad strokes, such divisions are, for example, the pre-historic times, ancient times, the newer age, the even newer age and within the very newest age, even smaller timefragments are frequent. We would like to emphasize that this methodological conditioning should not dim the true folk, historical and cultural unity which is behind the different material characteristics and fashions. It is obvious that the culture of the Carpathian Basin, at least in the last one thousand years, has shown a basic continuity, and moreover, the main question in the study of the Magyar ancient history is: on what is this basic cultural continuity based and how far can it be extended?


The name of a nation can change after a period of time, but the same culture will be continued, to determine the identity of a nation, we should track the traces of the same culture(and variatians of it)(from Sumerians to LBK, to Andronovo, to Sakha, to Huns, etc...)

Kornél Bakay presents the most important characteristics of the Scythian-Saka culture as follows: 1. the kurgan burials;12 2. the burial of wagons; 3. animal husbandry; 4. lost-wax-casting; metallurgy of high quality; 5. primary use of iron; 6. animal representations in art; 7. stag-cult; 8. Sun god belief and Sun sanctuaries; 9. burial masks; 10. Europid anthropological type; 11. custom of blood-covenant; 12. cavalry with heavy armor; 13. reflex-bow; 14. construction of international roads of commerce and their use; 15. sword-cult; 16. burial of carpets and textiles; 17. ritual vessels: cups, mirrors, drinking horns, cauldrons (Bakay, 2005, 42.).


The cultural structure of the Sakha's is also found in the Huns, at the Eurasian regions lying at the West of Mongolia)

So the culture of Mankind, by means of the Magyar-Hun culture, does not look back into a five-to-six-thousand year old past, to the development of the Sumerian literacy, or 50,000 thousand years, to the arrival of „modern man”, but six-million-years (GKE and GA, 2006, quot., 108; GA, 2003b, 2006, 30-32). The Magyar culture embraces six million years of cultural continuity! Here we are talking of an extraordinary culture, a much more advanced culture than the western culture, from a scientific point of view (GKE és GA, 2006, 135-146)! It is truly important for Mankind to learn to know the basis of the Magyar-Hun-Scythian history and culture. It is of vital importance in their personal lives to awaken the cosmic forces of creation that live within them, and promote their highest possible development.


Atilla Grandpierre tells that the Hunnish culture(the Turkish culture), is tracable until the Sumerians, and not only this, the root of this culture lies at the culture of the first humans.

There is another study of Elena E. Kuz'mina, the article we will analyze is called: "The Origin of the Indo-Iranians".

The "Indo-Iranians" term that is used in the title(is equal to the term Indo-Europeans) is made up by bad intended Turk hating persons(better said, intelligence agencies), and they try to force their hate crime to the academic world. The meaning of these terms are actually not logical at all, and is far from logical science. Just not to say the word "Turk", fake-up terms like this, and also hilarously wash the brains of the academic world. If you cant say "Turk", then at least say Magyar, Scythian, Sakha, Sumerian, Kenger, but please do not use faked-up terms like "Indo-Europeans" or "Indo-Iranians", this will show the hate crime behind it.

Just 5-10 years ago, the tactics of these Turk hating people were to ignore the Turkish origin of the Huns, they used ridiculous statements and hypothesis's like "Huns are not Turks", "Sumerians are not Turks" just to hit the Turks mentally. Some of them even defended very vague hypothesis's like the "Huns are of German origin, or are of Fin origin".
Now if we look at the academic and research articles online, we see that no one can say that the Sumerians were not of Turkish origin, but things were just 5-10 years ago on the opposite side. On the contrary, now they try to force the "Indo European" science fictive term and try to wash the brains of people with this new tactic? How much will it live, 3 or 5 years? Then which new lie will be made up? Why does no one use the "Aryan" term anymore? We should accept, that these people, especially the USA intelligence, have a great media power like the Hollywood organization, thats why they are masters of writing down fiction scenarios.

One of the people's that created the philosophy and foundation roots of the CIA was the Nazi Paul Joseph Goebbels, his sentences are still used today in the assymetric psychological warfare strategies of the CIA: " If you repeat a lie often enough, people will believe it. ", "If you tell a lie big enough and keep repeating it, people will eventually come to believe it.", " If you repeat a lie often enough, it becomes the truth.", "If you repeat a lie many times, people are bound to start believing it.".

Lets start with the analysis.

At the same time Andronovo unity according to settlement and house type should be viewed as a part of a larger Eurasian unity, stretching from central Europe to western Siberia. Settlements and houses of the various cultures of the Eurasian steppe and forest-steppe in the Bronze Age display uniform social functions, architecture, planning decisions and building techniques. It reflects in the first place a similarity of the economic level of development, and in the second place, a unity of house building traditions stemming from the Neolithic. Their origins are traced back to the early farming cultures of Europe, the Linearbandkeramik, which was concentrated in Central Europe from Hungary to Germany.


The ancestor of the Andronov culture in the Neolithic Age is the Linearbandkeramik culture from Hungary to Germany. From the Neolithic Age to the Bronze Age, in the Eurasian geography(regions from West Europe to West Siberia), our Proto-Turk ancestors are the owners of these cultures in those periods.

At this point we should we should look at the findings of Prof.Dr. Zeki Velidi Togan, in which he writes about how similar the Sumerians and the Sakha and Huns are in an archaeological way:

...The burial customs of the Sumerians, the old Scythians, the Huns and many more ancient Turkish tribes are the same...


And we also know that the Huns and Scythians have the same cultures as the Andronovo people. With this situation, we can say that the Sumerian-Kenger and LBK culture are of the same origin. And while know that the oldest human language belongs to the one of the Sumerians, we can say that the LBK people and the Sumerians spoke the Turkish language. And then out of the Neolithic Age Proto Turks until the Bronze Age the occurence of many variations of the Sumerian and LBK culture is being created from the rgions of Russia to Europe.

Finally, in Central Asia, the Andronovo culture that will be the creator of the following Sakha's and Huns is being created. And also, we should not forget that during the Neolithic Age, at least during 5000 BCE, the Sumerians migrated from Central Asia to the Middle East. So, this shows us that the origin of the Turkish Nation lies in Central Asia, and i think the headquarter is in the regions near the Altai Mountains. From here, during the Neolithic Age, Proto Turk migrations appeared to the Near East(Syria, Iraq, Türkiye, etc...), Russian regions(the West and North of the Khazar/Caspian Sea).

According to Elena E. Kuz'mina, within all these cultures the same type of houses are build, and the same national economic model is implemented. This shows the existence of one same Turkish nation.
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Re: Turk Nation: Anthropology-Archaeology-Genetic-Haplogroup

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 13 Nis 2015, 02:08

Lets continue our analysis and determinations with the 2009 study of A.G. Kozintsev from the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Article Name: "CRANIOMETRIC EVIDENCE OF THE EARLY CAUCASOID MIGRATIONS TO SIBERIA AND EASTERN CENTRAL ASIA, WITH REFERENCE TO THE INDO-EUROPEAN PROBLEM"

Measurements of 220 male Neolithic and Bronze Age cranial series from Eurasia were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis. The results support the idea that people associated with the Catacomb culture played a major role in the origin of the Afanasyev culture.

Okunev people of the Minusinsk Basin, those associated with Karakol, Ust-Tartas, and Krotovo cultures, and those buried in the Andronov-type cemeteries at Cherno-ozerye and Yelovka were of predominantly local Siberian origin.

The Samus series resembles that from Poltavka burials.

The Okunev people of Tuva and probably Yelunino people were likely descendants of the Pit Grave (Yamnaya) and early Catacomb populations of the Ukraine.
The same is true of the Alakul people of western Kazakhstan, who in addition, have numerous affinities amongst Neolithic and Early Bronze Age groups of Central and Western Europe.

The probable ancestors of certain Fedorov populations were the Afanasyev tribes of the Altai, whereas other Fedorov groups apparently descended from late Pit Grave and Catacomb tribes of the Northern Caucasus and the northwestern Caspian.

People of Gumugou are closest to Fedorov groups of northeastern Kazakhstan and Rudny Altai, suggesting that Caucasoids migrated to Xinjiang from the north rather than from the west.


At the study, 220 Neolithic and Bronz Age skulls were studied. In this study, the skulls that were taken from Siberia and East Central Asia are taken as a root of the analysis, and these are compared with the skulls taken from Russian and Central-East-West European regions. In the results, it is determined that these groups of skull were similar to each other, and therefore they should have a similar genetic structure. The results of the comparison is listed in a detailed manner.

Sonuçlarda, birbirine benzeyen ve dolayısı ile aynı genetik yapıya sahip olduğu görülen kafa taslar ayrıntılı bir şekilde sıralanmış.

According to Gromov (1997b), the Okunev people resembled the Neolithic population of the Krasnoyarsk–Kansk region. The Karakol culture of Gorny Altai is similar to Okunev culture, and craniometric parallels between people associated with these cultures were also noted. However, Karakol crania are believed to exhibit a “Mediterranean” tendency (Chikisheva, 2000; Tur, Solodovnikov, 2005).

The Okunev crania from Tuva and the Yelunino crania from the Upper Ob, especially the former, are much more Caucasoid (Gokhman, 1980; Solodovnikov, Tur, 2003; Kozintsev, 2008).

This agrees with archaeological facts indicating the affinities of cultures such as Yelunino and Okunev of Tuva with Early Bronze Age cultures of Central and even Western Europe (Kovalev, 2007).

The possible Caucasoid ties of other pre-Andronov tribes of Southern Siberia such as Krotovo (Dremov, 1997) and Samus (Solodovnikov, 2005, 2006) have been discussed by craniologists. K.N. Solodovnikov (Ibid.) believes that in all the above pre-Andronov groups, except the Okunev group of the Yenisei, these ties are Southern Caucasoid or Mediterranean which, in his view, is especially evident in the male series.

Craniologists have discovered that the Andronov community was markedly heterogeneous. People buried in graves with Alakul or mixed Alakul-Fedorov (Kozhumberdy) ceramics in western Kazakhstan
displayed a trait combination which V.V. Ginzburg (1962) described as Mediterranean, and V.P. Alekseyev (1964) as leptomorphic. Ginzburg believed that this combination evidences the affinities of western Alakul people with both the Timber Grave (Srubnaya) populations of the Volga steppes and those of Southwestern Central Asia (the AmuDarya/Syr-Darya interfluve).

Fedorov groups of the Upper Ob and the Altai deviate toward a gracile variety, traditionally described as Mediterranean. The presence of alleged “Mediterraneans” in these regions was explained differently: V.A. Dremov (1997) attributed it to links with the Alakul people, whereas K.N. Solodovnikov (2005, 2007) wrote about the pre-Andronov, specifically Yelunino substratum.

Measurements of series from Central and Western Europe and the Near East were taken from a summary compiled by I. Schwidetzky and F. Rösing (1990). Ninety-two series from Central and Western Europe and the Near East were studied by Western anthropologists.

In terms of origin, connections between the western Alakul and the earlier Neolithic and Early Bronze Age populations of Central and Western Europe are far more informative.

First, calling the western Alakul people “Mediterraneans” is unwarranted as they show virtually no connections with the Near East, Transcaucasia or Southwestern Central Asia. The parallel with a Middle
and Late Bronze Age group from Turkmenia is singular.

The chronology and geography of these affinities help reconstruct the principal stages of migrations which eventually brought Alakul ancestors to western Kazakhstan.

These stages are as follows:

-Western and Central Europe (4th millennium BC and earlier);
-The Ukraine (3rd millennium);
-Northern Caucasus and northwestern Caspian*;
-Western Kazakhstan (2nd millennium and possibly the late 3rd millennium BC).


To summarize it shortly, the measurements of the Proto Turk skulls from Central Asia and South Siberia show that they should have several Europoid Y-DNA haplogroups.
Now, lets collect and compile the results in this study, and put it in an understandable way. After this, based on the Y-DNA and MT-DNA combinations data on our pages viewtopic.php?f=229&t=12210 and viewtopic.php?f=229&t=12209, i will try to make a prediction of the haplogroups that could belong to the Proto Turk skulls that were anthropologically studied.





GROUP 1
BCE 3500-2500, Altai Republic
Afanasyev, Ursul, Altai:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE 3500-2500, Altai Republic
    Afanasyev, Nizhni Tyumechin(–1.12);

    BCE 2800-2200, Ukraine
    Catacomb, Don (0.59);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia-Samara
    Timber Grave(Srubna culture), Luzanovka, Volga (0.66);

    BCE 3500-2000, Kalmykia, Early Bronze Age
    Early Northern Caucasian culture, Kalmykia, group II according to V.A. Safronov (0.70).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    Q-M242

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C6,
    E1b1b,
    F*,
    G2, G2-P287, G2a, G2a2b, G2a3,
    I1, I2b,
    Q-M242,
    R*, R1a, R1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1a1a7, R1b, R1b1a2



GROUP 2
BCE 3500-2500, Altai Republic
Afanasyev, Saldyar I, Altai:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE 3500-2000, Russia, Volga–Ural area(The complete Russian regions above Kazakhstan)
    Yamna, Pit Grave, Volga–Ural area (–2.49);

    BCE 3500-2000, Russia, Orenburg(The Russian region above the Kazakhstan border)
    Yamna, Pit Grave, Orenburg region (–2.47);

    BCE 2700—2100, Volga–Ural area(The complete Russian regions above Kazakhstan)
    Yamna, Pit Grave – Poltavka group,Volga–Ural area (–2.42);

    BCE 2500-2200, Ukraine
    Late Catacomb, Verkhne-Tarasovka, Lower Dnieper (–2.35);

    BCE 3500-2500, Afanasyeva Gora(The South East of the Baikal Lake)
    Afanasyev, Afanasyeva Gora (–2.35)

    BCE 1400-800, South Siberia-Khakasia
    Karasuk III (–2.30);

    BCE 3500-2000, Kalmykia, Early Bronze Age
    Early Northern Caucasian culture, Kalmykia, group II (–2.10);

    BCE 3500-2500, South Siberia-Khakasia
    Afanasyev, Minusinsk Basin, pooled(–1.87);

    BCE 2200-800, Upper Ob(North Kazakhstan'ın üstündeki yakın Russia bölümü)
    Andronov, Firsovo XIV, Upper Ob (–1.82);

    BCE 3500- 2000, Ukraine
    Yamna, Pit Grave, Yuzhny Bug (–1.79);

    BCE 3500-2000, Ukraine
    Yamna, Pit Grave, Ingulets (–1.51);

    BCE 2800-2500, Ukraine
    Early Catacomb, Molochnaya (–1.36);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia-Samara
    Timber Grave, Luzanovka, Volga (–1.34);

    BCE 2800-2200, Ukraine, Kalmykia
    Catacomb, Volga and Kalmykia (–1.23 in both cases).

    Numerous remaining parallels are mostly with Catacomb and Timber Grave groups.

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C(xC3),
    Q-M242,
    R1a1, R1b1a, R1b1a2a, R1b1a2a2

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C, C(xC3), C3, C-M130, C6,
    E1b1b,
    F*,
    G2, G2-P287, G2a, G2a2a1, G2a2b, G2a3,
    H2,
    I, I1, I2a, I2a1b, I2a1b1, I2b,
    N, N1c, N1c1-Tat,
    O3,
    Q, Q-M242, Q1a1-M120, Q1a2a1-L54, Q-M3,
    R*, R1a, R1a1, R1a1a, R1a1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1a1a7, R1b, R1b1a, R1b1a2, R1b1a2a2


GROUP 3
BCE 3500-2500, Altai Republic
Afanasyev, Kurota II, Altai:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE 2700—2100, Volga–Ural area(The complete Russian regions above Kazakhstan)
    Poltavka (–1.38);

    BCE 3500-2500, Altai Republic
    Afanasyev, Saldyar I (0.59);

    BCE 2800-2200, Ukraine
    Catacomb, Volga (0.96).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    Q-M242,
    R1b1a, R1b1a2a, R1b1a2a2

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C6,
    E1b1b,
    F*,
    G2, G2-P287, G2a, G2a2a1, G2a2b, G2a3,
    H2,
    I1, I2a, I2a1b1, I2b,
    N1c,
    Q-M242,
    R*, R1a, R1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1a1a7, R1b, R1b1a2


GROUP 4
BCE 3500-2500, Altai Republic
Afanasyev, Ust-Kuyum, Altai:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE 2500-2200, Russia- Samara
    Late Catacomb, Samara–Orel watershed (–0.42);

    BCE 3500-2000, Ukraine
    Pit Grave, Ingulets (–0.20);

    BCE 3500-2000, Russia(The North West borders of the Khazar/Caspian Sea)
    Pit Grave, Stavropol area (–0.07);

    BCE 2200-800, South Siberia-Khakasia
    Andronov, Minusinsk Basin (0.51);

    BCE 2500-2200, Ukraine
    Late Catacomb, Zaporozhye (0.80).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C(xC3),
    Q-M242,
    R1a1, R1b1a, R1b1a2a, R1b1a2a2

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C, C3, C6,
    E1b1b,
    F*,
    G2, G2-P287, G2a, G2a2a1, G2a2b, G2a3,
    H2,
    I1, I2a, I2a1b, I2b,
    Q, Q1a1-M120, Q-M242,
    R*, R1a, R1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1a1a7, R1b, R1b1a, R1b1a2, R1b1a2a2


GROUP 5
BCE 3500-2500, Altai Republic
Afanasyev, southeastern Altai:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE 3500-2500, Altai Republic
    Afanasyev, Nizhni Tyumechin (–0.38);

    BCE 2800-2200, Ukraine
    Catacomb, Don (–0.18);

    BCE 2800-2500, Ukraine
    Early Catacomb, Molochnaya (–0.09);

    BCE 3500-2000, Ukraine
    Pit Grave, Kakhovka, Lower Dnieper (–0.05);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia-Rostov(Ukraine Sınırı doğusu)
    Timber Grave, Yasyrev, Lower Don (0.16);

    BCE 3500-2500, Altai Republic
    Afanasyev, Saldyar I (0.22);

    BCE 3500-2000, Ukraine
    Pit Grave, Yuzhny Bug (0.23);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia-Samara
    Timber Grave, Luzanovka, Volga (0.24);

    BCE 3500-2000, Ukraine
    Pit Grave, Ukraine, pooled (0.47);

    BCE 2800-2500, Ukraine
    Early Catacomb, Verkhne-Tarasovka, Lower Dnieper (0.75);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia-Samara-Ukraine
    Timber Grave, Krivaya Luka, Lower Volga (0.81);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia-Samara
    Timber Grave, Volga, pooled (0.86);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia- Volgograd- Astrakhan
    Timber Grave, Volgograd and Astrakhan regions (0.89);

    BCE 3500—2000, Volga–Ural area(The complete Russian regions above Kazakhstan)
    Pit Grave – Poltavka, Volga–Ural area (0.91);

    BCE 2800-2200, Kalmykia
    Catacomb, Kalmykia (0.95).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    Q-M242,
    R1b1a, R1b1a2a, R1b1a2a2

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C6,
    E1b1b,
    E1b1b,
    F*,
    G2, G2-P287, G2a, G2a2a1, G2a2b, G2a3,
    H2,
    I1, I2a, I2a1b1, I2b,
    Q-M242,
    R*, R1a, R1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1a1a7, R1b, R1b1a2



GROUP 6
BCE 3500-2500, Altai Republic
Afanasyev, Nizhni Tyumechin, Altai:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:
    BCE 3500-2500, Altai Republic
    Afanasyev, Ursul (–1.12);

    BCE 2800-2200, Ukraine
    Catacomb, Don (–0.86);

    BCE 2800-2500, Ukraine
    Early Catacomb, Verkhne-Tarasovka, Lower Dnieper (–0.76);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia-Rostov(Ukraine Sınırı doğusu)
    Timber Grave, Yasyrev, Lower Don (–0.52);

    BCE 3500-2500, Altai Republic
    Afanasyev, southeastern Altai (–0.38);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia-Samara-Ukraine
    Timber Grave, Krivaya Luka, Lower Volga (–0.25);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia-Samara
    Timber Grave, Luzanovka, Volga (–0.07);

    BCE 3500—2000, Volga–Ural area(The complete Russian regions above Kazakhstan)
    Pit Grave – Poltavka, Volga–Ural area (0.27);

    BCE 3500-2500, Altai Republic
    Afanasyev, Saldyar I (0.56);

    BCE 3500-2000, Ukraine
    Pit Grave, Ingulets (0.77);

    BCE 3500-2000, Ukraine
    Pit Grave, Ukraine, pooled (0.83).


    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    Q-M242,
    R1b1a, R1b1a2a, R1b1a2a2

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C6,
    E1b1b,
    F*,
    G2, G2-P287, G2a, G2a2a1, G2a2b, G2a3,
    H2,
    I1, I2a, I2a1b1, I2b,
    Q-M242,
    R*, R1a, R1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1a1a7, R1b, R1b1a2



GROUP 7
BCE 3500-2500, Altai Republic
Afanasyev, Altai, pooled:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia-Samara
    Timber Grave, Luzanovka, Volga (0.23);

    BCE 2800-2200, Ukraine
    Catacomb, Don (0.29);

    BCE 1800-1200, Bashkiria
    Timber Grave, Bashkiria (0.79);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia-Samara-Ukraine
    Timber Grave, Krivaya Luka, Lower Volga (0.96).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    Q-M242

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:

    C6,
    E1b1b,
    F*,
    G2, G2-P287, G2a, G2a2b, G2a3,
    I1, I2b,
    Q-M242,
    R*, R1a, R1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1a1a7, R1b, R1b1a2



GROUP 8
BCE 3500-1400-800, South Siberia-Khakasia
Afanasyev, Karasuk III, Minusinsk Basin:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE 3500-2500, Altai Republic
    Afanasyev, Saldyar I (–2.30);

    BCE 3500-2000, Russia, Volga–Ural area(The complete Russian regions above Kazakhstan)
    Pit Grave, Volga–Ural area (–0.96);

    BCE 3500-2500, Afanasyeva Gora(The South East of the Baikal Lake)
    Afanasyev, Afanasyeva Gora (–0.54);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia-Samara
    Timber Grave, Volga–Ural area (–0.32);

    BCE 2500-2200, Ukraine
    Late Catacomb, Verkhne Tarasovka, Lower Dnieper (–0.25);

    BCE 2800-2200, Ukraine
    Catacomb, Volga (–0.22);

    BCE 3500-2000, Russia, Orenburg(The Russian region above the Kazakhstan border)
    Pit Grave, Orenburg region (–0.13);

    BCE 2800-2200, Ukraine
    Catacomb, Crimea (0.01);

    BCE 3500—2000, Volga–Ural area(The complete Russian regions above Kazakhstan)
    Pit Grave – Poltavka, Volga–Ural area (0.24);

    BCE 2500-2000, Russia-Samara
    Potapovka, Volga (0.73);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia-Rostov(Ukraine Sınırı doğusu)
    Timber Grave, Yasyrev, Lower Don (0.90).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:
    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups:

    Q-M242,
    R1b1a, R1b1a2a, R1b1a2a2

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C, C3, C-M130, C(xC3), C6,
    E1b1b,
    F*,
    G2, G2a, G2a2a1, G2a2b, G2a3,
    H2,
    I, I1, I2a, I2a1b, I2a1b1, I2b,
    N, N1c, N1c1-Tat,
    O3,
    Q1a1-M120, Q1a2a1-L54, Q-M3, Q-M242,
    R*, R1a, R1a1, R1a1a, R1a1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1a1a7, R1b, R1b1a, R1b1a2, R1b1a2a2



GROUP 9
BCE 3500-2500, Afanasyeva Gora(The South East of the Baikal Lake) ve Khakasia
Afanasyev, Afanasyeva Gora, Minusinsk Basin:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE 3500-2500, Altai Republic
    Afanasyev, Saldyar I (–2.35);

    BCE 2500-2200, Ukraine
    Late Catacomb, VerkhneTarasovka, Lower Dnieper (–1.60);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia- Volgograd- Astrakhan
    Timber Grave, Volgograd and Astrakhan regions (–0.66);

    BCE 3500-1400-800, South Siberia-Khakasia
    Afanasyev, Karasuk III (–0.54);

    BCE 2800-2500, Ukraine
    Early Catacomb, Molochnaya (–0.46);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia-Rostov(Ukraine Sınırı doğusu)
    Timber Grave, Yasyrev, Lower Don (–0.13);

    BCE 3500-2000, Ukraine
    Pit Grave, Southern Bug (0.21);

    BCE 2800-2500, Ukraine
    Early Catacomb, Kakhovka, Lower Dnieper (0.44);

    BCE 3500-2000, Russia, Volga–Ural area(The complete Russian regions above Kazakhstan)
    Pit Grave, Volga–Ural area (0.85);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia-Samara
    Timber Grave, Volga (0.88);

    BCE 3500-2000, Russia, Orenburg(The Russian region above the Kazakhstan border)
    Pit Grave, Orenburg region (0.89);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia-Samara-Ukraine
    Timber Grave, Krivaya Luka, Lower Volga (0.96).

    BCE 3000-2000, France
    The analysis based on the nine-trait set revealed one Western European parallel – with the Early Bronze Age (3rd millennium BC) group from Aveyron, France, (0.04), but ties with the steppe populations of the Eastern European Bronze Age are stronger

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    G2a,
    I2a,
    Q-M242,
    R1b1a, R1b1a2a, R1b1a2a2

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C, C(xC3), C3, C-M130, C6,
    E1b1b,
    F*,
    G2, G2-P287, G2a, G2a2b, G2a3, G2a4,
    H2,
    I, I1, I2, I2a, I2a1b, I2a1b1, I2a2a1, I2b,
    I2a1a1/H2,
    J2a1,
    N, N1c, N1c1-Tat,
    O3,
    Q1a1-M120, Q1a2a1-L54, Q-M3, Q-M242,
    R*, R1a, R1a1, R1a1a, R1a1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1a1a7, R1b, R1b1a, R1b1a2, R1b1a2a1a2, R1b1a2a2,
    T1a



GROUP 10
BCE 3500-2500, South Siberia-Khakasia
Afanasyev, Minusinsk Basin, pooled:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE 3500-2500, Altai Republic
    Afanasyev, Saldyar I (–1.87);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia-Rostov(Ukraine Sınırı doğusu)
    Timber Grave, Yasyrev, Lower Don (–0.71);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia- Volgograd- Astrakhan
    Timber Grave, Volgograd and Astrakhan regions (–0.12);

    BCE 2500-2200, Ukraine
    Late Catacomb, Verkhne-Tarasovka, Lower Dnieper (–0.06);

    BCE 3500-2000, Russia, Orenburg(The Russian region above the Kazakhstan border)
    Pit Grave, Orenburg region (0.22);

    BCE 2800-2500, Ukraine
    Early Catacomb, the Molochnaya (0.24);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia-Samara
    Timber Grave, Luzanovka, Volga (0.64);

    BCE 3500-2000, Russia, Volga–Ural area(The complete Russian regions above Kazakhstan)
    Pit Grave, Volga–Ural area (0.65);

    BCE 2800-2200, Kalmykia
    Catacomb, Kalmykia (0.81);

    BCE 3500-2000, Ukraine
    Pit Grave, Yuzhny Bug (0.82);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia-Samara
    Timber Grave, Volga (0.85);

    BCE 3500—2000, Volga–Ural area(The complete Russian regions above Kazakhstan)
    Pit Grave – Poltavka, Volga–Ural area (0.93);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia-Samara-Ukraine
    Timber Grave, Krivaya Luka, Lower Volga (0.95);

    BCE 2500-1900, Chuvashia
    Abashevo (0.99).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:
    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups: Q-M242, R1b1a, R1b1a2a, R1b1a2a2
    C6, E1b1b, F*, G2, G2-P287, G2a, G2a2a1, G2a3, G2a2b, H2, I1, I2a, I2a1b1, I2b, Q-M242, R*, R1a, R1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1a1a7, R1b, R1b1a2



GROUP 11
BCE 2000-1500, South Siberia-Khakasia
Okunev, Uybat group, Minusinsk Basin:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE 2000-1500, South Siberia-Khakasia
    the only close parallel is with Okunev of the Tas-Khaza group (–0.95).

    BCE 2000-1500, East Kazakhstan
    Okunev of Chernovaya (1.44),

    BCE 2000-1500, South Siberia-Khakasia
    Okunev of Karasuk (1.90) rank next.

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C(xC3),
    R1a1

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C(xC3), C1/C6,
    E1b1b,
    F*,
    G2a, G2a2b,
    I, I1, I2a1b, I2b, I2c2,
    Q1a2a1-L54,
    R1a, R1a1, R1a1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1b, R1b1a, R1b1a2, R1b1a2a2, R1b1a2a2



GROUP 12
BCE 2000-1500, South Siberia-Khakasia
Okunev, Verkhni Askiz, Minusinsk Basin:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE 5.500 - 2.500, South Siberia-Krasnoyarsk
    Neolithic of Krasnoyarsk–Kansk area (–0.07).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C(xC3),
    R1a1

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C(xC3), C1/C6,
    E1b1b,
    F*,
    G2a, G2a2b,
    I, I1, I2a1b, I2b, I2c2,
    Q1a2a1-L54,
    R1a, R1a1, R1a1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1b, R1b1a, R1b1a2, R1b1a2a2, R1b1a2a2



GROUP 13
BCE 2000-1500, East Kazakhstan-South Siberia-Khakasia
Okunev, Chernovaya, Minusinsk Basin:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE 5.500 - 2.500, South Siberia-Krasnoyarsk
    the only close parallel is with the Neolithic of Krasnoyarsk–Kansk area (0.36).

    BCE 2000-1500, South Siberia-Khakasia
    The least removed among other populations is Okunev, Uybat group (1.44).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C(xC3),
    R1a1

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C(xC3), C1/C6,
    E1b1b,
    F*,
    G2a, G2a2b,
    I, I1, I2a1b, I2b, I2c2,
    Q1a2a1-L54,
    R1a, R1a1, R1a1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1b, R1b1a, R1b1a2, R1b1a2a2, R1b1a2a2



GROUP 14
BCE 2000-1500, South Siberia-Khakasia
Okunev, Tas-Khaza group, Minusinsk Basin:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE 2000-1500, South Siberia-Khakasia
    the only close parallel is with Okunev of Uybat (–0.95).

    BCE 2000-1500, South Siberia-Khakasia
    The least distant among other groups is Karasuk (1.77).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C(xC3),
    R1a1

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C(xC3), C1/C6,
    E1b1b,
    F*,
    G2a, G2a2b,
    I, I1, I2a1b, I2b, I2c2,
    Q1a2a1-L54,
    R1a, R1a1, R1a1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1b, R1b1a, R1b1a2, R1b1a2a2, R1b1a2a2



GROUP 15
BCE 2000-1500, South Siberia-Khakasia
Okunev, Minusinsk Basin, pooled:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE 5.500 - 2.500, South Siberia-Krasnoyarsk
    the only close parallel is with the Neolithic of Krasnoyarsk–Kansk area (0.15).

    BCE 2000-1500, South Siberia-Khakasia
    The least removed among other groups is Karasuk (3.37).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C(xC3),
    R1a1

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C(xC3), C1/C6,
    E1b1b,
    F*,
    G2a, G2a2b,
    I, I1, I2a1b, I2b, I2c2,
    Q1a2a1-L54,
    R1a, R1a1, R1a1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1b, R1b1a, R1b1a2, R1b1a2a2, R1b1a2a2



GROUP 16
BCE 2000-1500, Tuva Republic
Okunev, Aimyrlyg, Tuva:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE 3500-2000, Ukraine
    Pit Grave, Ingulets (–0.21);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia- Saratov(Kazakhstan'ın North West Sınırı)
    Timber Grave, Saratov region (–0.10);

    BCE 2800-2500, Ukraine
    Early Catacomb, Molochnaya (0.41);

    BCE 1800-1200, Ukraine
    Timber Grave, Ukraine, pooled (0.45);

    BCE 1750-1500, Uzbekistan
    Sapallitepe, southern Uzbukistan (0.67).

    Nine-trait set:

    BCE 2800-2500, Ukraine
    Early Catacomb, Molochnaya (–1.21);

    BCE 3500-3000, Germany
    Tiefstichkeramik (related to Funnel Beaker), Ostorf, Germany, Late Neolithic, late 4th millennium BC (No.106) (–1.15);

    BCE 3500-2500, Afanasyeva Gora(The South East of the Baikal Lake) ve Khakasia
    Afanasyev, Afanasyeva Gora (–0.76);

    BCE 3500-2000, Ukraine
    Pit Grave, Ingulets (–0.53);

    BCE 2500-2200, Ukraine
    Late Catacomb, Verkhne-Tarasovka, Lower Dnieper (–0.39);

    BCE 3500-2500, South Siberia-Khakasia
    Afanasyev, Minusinsk Basin (–0.37);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia- Volgograd- Astrakhan
    Timber Grave, Volgograd and Astrakhan regions (–0.26);

    BCE 2500-1900, Chuvashia
    Abashevo (–0.26);

    BCE 1750-1500, Uzbekistan
    Sapallitepe, Southern Uzbekistan (–0.02);

    BCE 2250-1750, Russia, West Siberia, Ob-Irtysh
    Yelunino (0.01);

    BCE 3500-2500, Altai Republic
    Afanasyev, Saldyar I (0.24);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia-Samara-Khryaschevka
    Timber Grave, Khryaschevka, Volga (0.29).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C(xC3),
    F*,
    I2a1b1a,
    Q-M242,
    R*, R1a1, R1b1a, R1b1a2a, R1b1a2a2

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C, C(xC3), C1/C6, C3, C-M130, C1/C6, C6,
    E1b1b, E1b1b1a1b,
    F*,
    G2-P287, G2, G2a, G2a2a, G2a2a1, G2a2b, G2a4, G2a3,
    H2,
    I, I1, I2, I2a, I2a1, I2a1b, I2a1b1, I2a1b1a, I2a2a1, I2b, I2c2, I2a1a1/H2,
    J2a1,
    N, N1c, N1c1-Tat,
    O3,
    Q-M242, Q1a1-M120, Q1a2a1-L54, Q-M3,
    R*, R(xR1a), R1a, R1a1, R1a1a, R1a1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1a1a7, R1b, R1b1a, R1b1a2, R1b1a2a2, R1b1a2a1a2, R1b1a2a2,
    T1a



GROUP 17
BCE 1500, Altai Republic
Karakol:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE 5500-2500, Altai Republic
    the only parallel is with the Neolithic and Chalcolithic of Ust-Isha and Itkul, Upper Ob (0.98).

    BCE 2200-800, Russia, Tomsk, West Siberia
    The least removed among other groups is Yelovka II (3.87),

    BCE 2000-1500, South Siberia-Khakasia
    whereas Okunev is much further (7.26).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C(xC3),
    R1a1

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C(xC3), C1/C6,
    E1b1b, E1b1b1a1b,
    F*,
    G2a, G2a2b,
    I, I1, I2a1b, I2b, I2c2,
    Q1a2a1-L54,
    R(xR1a), R1a, R1a1, R1a1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1a1a7, R1b, R1b1a, R1b1a2, R1b1a2a2, R1b1a2a2



GROUP 18
BCE 2250-1750, Russia, West Siberia, Ob-Irtysh
Yelunino:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    not a single close parallel.

    BCE 2000-1500, Tuva Republic
    The least removed is Okunev of Tuva (1.56),

    BCE 4000-2000, Armenia
    next follow Djarat and Shengavit, Kura-Araxes culture, Armenia, 4th–3rd millennia BC (2.16);

    BCE 3400-2000, Georgia
    the pooled series of Kura-Araxes culture from Georgia ranks third (2.65),

    BCE 2000-1550, East Turkistan
    Gumugou, Xinjiang, fourth (3.83).


    Nine-trait set:

    BCE 2700—2100, Volga–Ural area(The complete Russian regions above Kazakhstan)
    Poltavka (–0.13);

    BCE 2000-1500, Tuva Republic
    Okunev of Tuva (0.01);

    BCE 2800-2500, Ukraine
    Early Catacomb, Molochnaya (0.01);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia-Samara
    Timber Grave, forest-steppe Volga area (0.22);

    BCE 2500-1500, Poland
    Mierzanowice, Poland, Early Bronze Age, late 3rd – early 2nd millennia BC (No.173) (0.28).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C(xC3),
    K*,
    R1a1, R1a1a, R1b1a, R1b1a2a, R1b1a2a2

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C(xC3), C1/C6, C6,
    E1b1b,
    F*,
    G2, G2-P287, G2a, G2a2a1, G2a2b, G2a3,
    H2,
    I, I1, I2a, I2a1, I2a1b, I2a1b1, I2b, I2c2,
    K(xLT),
    N1c, N1c1-Tat,
    Q-M242, Q1a2a1-L54,
    R*, R1a, R1a1, R1a1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1a1a7, R1b, R1b1a, R1b1a2, R1b1a2a2, R1b1a2a2



GROUP 19
BCE 4000-2500, West Siberia, Sopka-2(Altay Dağı West Sınırı)
Ust-Tartas, Sopka-2:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE 2250-1750, West Siberia, Sopka-2(Altay Dağı West Sınırı)
    Krotovo, Sopka-2 (0.72).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C, C(xC3), C-M130, C1/C6, C3,
    I, I2a1, I2a1b, I2c2,
    N, N1c,
    Q1a1-M120, Q1a2a1-L54, Q-M3,
    R1a1, R1a1a, R1a1a1, R1b, R1b1a, R1b1a2a2



GROUP 20
BCE 2250-1750, West Siberia, Sopka-2(Altay Dağı West Sınırı)
Krotovo, Sopka-2:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE 4000-2500, West Siberia, Sopka-2(Altay Dağı West Sınırı)
    Ust-Tartas, Sopka-2 (0.72).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C, C(xC3), C-M130, C1/C6, C3,
    I, I2a1, I2a1b, I2c2,
    N, N1c
    Q-M3, Q1a1-M120, Q1a2a1-L54, Q-M3,
    R1a1, R1a1a, R1a1a1, R1b, R1b1a, R1b1a2a2



GROUP 21
BCE 1500-1000, West Siberia, Tomsk Priobje-Pritomje
Samus:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    not a single close parallel.

    BCE 2700—2100, Volga–Ural area(The complete Russian regions above Kazakhstan)
    The least removed is Poltavka (1.18).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    R1b1a, R1b1a2a, R1b1a2a2

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C6,
    E1b1b,
    F*,
    G2, G2a, G2a2a1, G2a2b, G2a3, G2-P287,
    H2,
    I1, I2a, I2a1b1, I2b,
    N1c,
    Q-M242,
    R*, R1a, R1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1a1a7, R1b, R1b1a2



GROUP 22
BCE2100-1400, West Kazakhstan
Alakul, western Kazakhstan:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE 2800-2500, Ukraine
    Early Catacomb, Molochnaya (–1.35);

    BCE 3500-2000, Ukraine
    Pit Grave, Ingulets (–0.36);

    BCE 2800-2500, Ukraine
    Early Catacomb, Verkhne-Tarasovka, Lower Dnieper (0.44);

    BCE 1500-1200, Russia-Samara
    Late Timber Grave, Volga–Ural area (0.54);

    BCE 3700-2200, Crimea
    Kemi-Oba, Crimea (0.88).

    Nine-trait set:

    BCE 2800-2500, Ukraine
    Early Catacomb, Molochnaya (–1.39);

    BCE 3500-2000, Ukraine
    Pit Grave, Ingulets (–0.88);

    BCE 1800-1200, Ukraine
    Timber Grave, ground burials, Ukraine (–0.79),

    BCE 3500-2000, Ukraine
    Pit Grave, Kakhovka, Lower Dnieper (–0.67);

    BCE 1500-800, Türkmenistan
    Parkhay II, Turkmenia, Middle and Late Bronze Age (–0.61);

    BCE 4500-4000, Macaristan
    Tiszapolgar, Hungary, Chalcolithic, 5th–4th millennia BC (No.197) (–0.38);

    BCE 1500-1200, Russia-Samara
    Late Timber Grave, Volga–Ural area (–0.16);

    BCE 4600-4300, France
    Rössen, eastern France, Neolithic, 5th millennium BC (No.43) (–0.09);

    BCE 3000-2800, Germany ve Poland
    Globular Amphorae, Germany and Poland, Early Bronze Age (early 3rd millennium BC) (No.192)(–0.07);

    BCE 1800-1200, Ukraine
    Timber Grave, Ukraine, pooled (–0.03);


    BCE 5000-4000, Macaristan
    Lengyel, Hungary, Neolithic, 5th millennium BC (No.40) (0.07);

    BCE 3500-2000, Germany
    Meklenburg, Germany, Early Bronze Age, 4th–3rd millennia BC (No.107) (0.07);

    BCE 3000-2000, France
    Aveyron, France, Early Bronze Age, 3rd century BC (No.99) (0.09);

    BCE 2500-1000, Germany ve Czech Republic
    Unetice, Germany and Czechia, Bronze Age, 3rd–2nd millennia BC (No.208) (0.09);

    BCE 5500-5000, Germany, Poland ve Austria
    Linear Band Pottery, Neolithic, 6th millennium BC (No.14) (0.11);

    BCE 3500-2000, Ukraine
    Pit Grave, Yuzhny Bug (0.20);

    BCE 2500-1000, Austria
    Veterov, Austria, Bronze Age, III–II millennia BC (No.205) (0.21).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C6,
    F*,
    G2a, G2a2a, G2a2a1, G2a2b, G2a3,
    I1, I2, I2a, I2a2, I2a1b1a, I2c2,
    R*, R1a, R1a1a1, R1b, R1b1a2a1a2, R1b1a, R1b1a2a, R1b1a2a2,
    T1a

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C(xC3), C1/C6, C6,
    E1b1b, E1b1b1a1b,
    F*,
    G2-P287, G2, G2a, G2a2a, G2a2a1, G2a2b, G2a4, G2a3,
    H2,
    I, I1, I2, I2a, I2a1, I2a1b, I2a1b1, I2a1b1a, I2a2, I2a2a1, I2b, I2c2, I2a1a1/H2,
    H2,
    J2a1,
    K(xLT),
    N1c,
    Q-M242, Q1a2a1-L54,
    R*, R(xR1a), R1a, R1a1, R1a1a1, R1a1a1b1a2, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1a1a7, R1b, R1b1a, R1b1a2, R1b1a2a2, R1b1a2a1a2, R1b1a2a2,
    T1a



GROUP 23
BCE2100-1400, East Kazakhstan
Alakul, Yermak IV, the Irtysh:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE 2750-2000, Kalmykia
    not a single close parallel. The least removed is the Late Pit Grave group of Kalmykia* (1.32).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    R1b1a, R1b1a2a, R1b1a2a2

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    E1b1b,
    G2, G2a, G2a2a1, G2a3,
    H2,
    I1, I2a, I2a1b1, I2b,
    R*, R1a, R1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1b, R1b1a2



GROUP 24
BCE1500-1300, Upper Ob(North Kazakhstan'ın üstündeki yakın Russia bölümü)
Fedorov, Firsovo XIV, the Upper Ob:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE 3500-2500, Altai Republic
    Afanasyev, Saldyar I (–1.82);

    BCE 1500-1300, Altai Republic
    Fedorov, Rudny Altai (–0.04);

    BCE 2800-2200, Kalmykia
    Catacomb, Kalmykia (0.06);

    BCE 3500—2000, Volga–Ural area(The complete Russian regions above Kazakhstan)
    Pit Grave – Poltavka, Volga–Ural area (0.43);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia-Samara
    Timber Grave, Luzanovka, Volga (0.87);

    BCE 3500-2000, Russia, Orenburg(The Russian region above the Kazakhstan border)
    Pit Grave, Orenburg region (0.90);

    BCE 2800-2500, Ukraine
    Early Catacomb, Molochnaya (0.94).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    Q-M242,
    R1b1a, R1b1a2a, R1b1a2a2

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C, C3, C6,
    E1b1b,
    F*,
    G2, G2-P287, G2a, G2a2a1, G2a2b, G2a3,
    H2,
    I1, I2a, I2a1b, I2a1b1, I2b,
    Q-M242, Q1a1-M120,
    R*, R1a, R1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1a1a7, R1b, R1b1a, R1b1a2, R1b1a2a2



GROUP 25
BCE1500-1300, Upper Ob(North Kazakhstan'ın üstündeki yakın Russia bölümü)
Fedorov, the Upper Ob, pooled:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE 2800-2200, Russia-Stavropol(Karadeniz'in West Sınırı)
    Catacomb, Stavropol area (0.50);

    BCE 2750-2000, Kalmykia
    Late Pit Grave, Kalmykia (0.80);

    BCE 3500-2000, Russia-Stavropol(Karadeniz'in West Sınırı)
    Pit Grave, Stavropol area (0.90).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    R1b1a, R1b1a2a, R1b1a2a2

    C, C3, C6,
    E1b1b,
    F*,
    G2, G2-P287, G2a, G2a2a1, G2a3, G2a2b,
    H2,
    I1, I2a, I2a1b, I2a1b1, I2b,
    Q-M242, Q1a1-M120,
    R*, R1a, R1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1a1a7, R1b, R1b1a, R1b1a2, R1b1a2a2



GROUP 26
BCE 1500-1300, Altai Republic
Fedorov, Rudny Altai:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE 1500-1000, West Siberia, Tomsk Priobje-Pritomje
    Samus (–0.82);

    BCE 3500-2500, Altai Republic
    Afanasyev, Saldyar I (–0.71);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia-Samara
    Timber Grave, Luzanovka, Volga (–0.12);

    BCE1500-1300, Upper Ob(North Kazakhstan'ın üstündeki yakın Russia bölümü)
    Fedorov, Firsovo XIV (–0.04);

    BCE 3500—2000, Volga–Ural area(The complete Russian regions above Kazakhstan)
    Pit Grave –Poltavka, Volga–Ural area (–0.02);

    BCE 3500-2000, Kalmykia
    Early Northern Caucasian culture, Kalmykia, group II (0.61);

    BCE 2500-2000, Russia-Samara
    Potapovka, Volga (0.63);

    BCE1500-1300, North East Kazakhstan
    Fedorov, northeastern Kazakhstan (0.79);

    BCE 2500-2200, Ukraine
    Late Catacomb, Kakhovka, Lower Dnieper (0.82),

    BCE 2800-2200, Ukraine
    Catacomb, Don (0.83);

    BCE 3500-2000, Russia, Orenburg(The Russian region above the Kazakhstan border)
    Pit Grave, Orenburg region (0.88);

    BCE 2700—2100, Volga–Ural area(The complete Russian regions above Kazakhstan)
    Poltavka (0.99).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    Q-M242,
    R1b1a, R1b1a2a, R1b1a2a2

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C, C3, C6,
    E1b1b, E1b1b1a1b,
    F*,
    G2, G2a, G2a2a1, G2a2b, G2a3, G2-P287,
    H2,
    I1, I2a, I2a1b, I2a1b1, I2b,
    N1c,
    Q-M242, Q1a1-M120,
    R*, R(xR1a), R1a, R1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1a1a7, R1b, R1b1a, R1b1a2, R1b1a2a2



GROUP 27
BCE1500-1300, North East Kazakhstan
Fedorov, northeastern Kazakhstan:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE 2750-2000, Kalmykia
    Late Pit Grave, Kalmykia (–1.50);

    BCE 2500-2200, Ukraine
    Late Catacomb, Yuzhny Bug (–1.44);

    BCE1500-1300, South Siberia-Khakasia
    Fedorov, Minusinsk Basin (–0.67);

    BCE 3500-2000, Kalmykia
    Early Northern Caucasian culture, Kalmykia, group II (–0.59);

    BCE 2500-2200, Ukraine
    Late Catacomb, Kakhovka, Lower Dnieper (–0.47);

    BCE 2500-2000, Russia-Samara
    Potapovka, Volga (–0.13);

    BCE 2800-2200, Ukraine
    Catacomb, Volga (0.08);

    BCE 2500-2200, Ukraine
    Late Catacomb, Krivoy Rog, Upper Ingulets (0.16);

    BCE 2500-2200, Ukraine
    Late Catacomb, Ukraine, pooled (0.17);

    BCE 3500-2000, Kalmykia
    Pit Grave, Kalmykia (0.47);

    BCE 3500-2000, Russia-Stavropol(Karadeniz'in West Sınırı)
    Pit Grave, Stavropol area (0.51);

    BCE 2500-2200, Russia-Samara
    Late Catacomb, Samara–Orel watershed (0.54);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia-Samara
    Timber Grave, Luzanovka, Volga (0.57);

    BCE 2500-2000, Kalmykia
    Late Northern Caucasian culture, Kalmykia, group IV (0.72);

    BCE 2500-2200, Ukraine
    Late Catacomb, Zaporozhye, Lower Dnieper (0.74);

    BCE 1500-1300, Altai Republic
    Fedorov, Rudny Altai (0.79);

    BCE 5000-4500, Volga–Ural area(The complete Russian regions above Kazakhstan)
    Khvalynsk, Volga–Ural area (0.88).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    R1b1a, R1b1a2a, R1b1a2a2

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C6,
    E1b1b, E1b1b1a1b,
    F*,
    G2, G2-P287, G2a, G2a2a1, G2a2b, G2a3,
    H2,
    I1, I2a, I2a1b, I2a1b1, I2b,
    Q-M242,
    R*, R(xR1a), R1a, R1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1a1a7, R1b, R1b1a, R1b1a2, R1b1a2a2



GROUP 28
BCE1500-1300, South Siberia-Khakasia
Fedorov, Minusinsk Basin:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE1500-1300, North East Kazakhstan
    Fedorov, northeastern Kazakhstan (–0.67);

    BCE 2500-2000, Kalmykia
    Late Northern Caucasian culture, Kalmykia, group IV (–0.09);

    BCE 3500-2000, Russia-Stavropol(Karadeniz'in West Sınırı)
    Pit Grave, Stavropol area (–0.04);

    BCE 2750-2000, Kalmykia
    Late Pit Grave, Kalmykia (–0.03);

    BCE 2500-2200, Ukraine
    Late Catacomb, Krivoy Rog, Upper Ingulets (0.31);

    BCE 2500-2200, Russia-Samara
    Late Catacomb, Samara/Orel interfluve (0.39);

    BCE 3500-2500, Altai Republic
    Afanasyev, Ust-Kuyum (0.51);

    BCE 2500-2200, Ukraine
    Late Catacomb, Kakhovka, Lower Dnieper (0.57);

    BCE 3500-2000, Kalmykia
    Early Northern Caucasian culture, Kalmykia, group II (0.69);

    BCE 1800-1200, Russia-Samara
    Timber Grave, Luzanovka, Volga (0.72);

    BCE 2500-2200, Crimea
    Late Catacomb, Crimea (0.83);

    BCE 2500-2200, Ukraine
    Late Catacomb, Ukraine, pooled (0.84).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    Q-M242,
    R1b1a, R1b1a2a, R1b1a2a2

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C6,
    E1b1b, E1b1b1a1b,
    F*,
    G2, G2-P287, G2a, G2a2a1, G2a2b, G2a3,
    H2,
    I1, I2a, I2a1b, I2a1b1, I2b,
    Q-M242,
    R*, R(xR1a), R1a, R1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1a1a7, R1b, R1b1a, R1b1a2, R1b1a2a2



GROUP 29
BCE 2200-800, East Kazakhstan ve Omsk(North-East Kazakhstan Sınırı Russiası West Siberia)
“Andronoid”, Cherno-ozerye I, Omsk area:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE 2000-1750, West Siberia, Sopka-2(Altay Dağı West Sınırı)
    Late Krotovo, Sopka-2 (0.91).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C(xC3),
    R1a1

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C, C-M130, C1/C6, C3,
    E1b1b,
    F*,
    G2a, G2a2b,
    I1, I2a1, I2a1b, I2b, I2c2,
    N, N1c,
    Q, Q-M3, Q1a1-M120, Q1a2a1-L54,
    R1a, R1a1, R1a1a, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1b, R1b1a, R1b1a2, R1b1a2a2



GROUP 30
BCE 2200-800, Russia, Tomsk, West Siberia ve Omsk(North-East Kazakhstan Sınırı Russiası West Siberia)
“Andronoid”, Yelovka II, Tomsk area:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    BCE 900-700, West Siberia(Kazakhstan Northi)
    not a single close parallel. The least distant is Irmen (1.01);

    BCE 2000-1750, West Siberia, Sopka-2(Altay Dağı West Sınırı)
    those ranking next are Late Krotovo, Sopka-2 (1.49),

    BCE 2200-800, East Kazakhstan ve Omsk(North-East Kazakhstan Sınırı Russiası West Siberia)
    Chernoozerye I (3.42),

    BCE 1500, Altai Republic
    Karakol (3.87).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups: C(xC3), R1a1

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C, C(xC3), C-M130, C1/C6, C3,
    E1b1b, E1b1b1a1b,
    F*,
    G2, G2a, G2a2b, G2a3,
    I, I1, I2a1, I2a1b, I2b, I2c2,
    N, N1c,
    Q, Q-M3, Q1a1-M120, Q1a2a1-L54,
    R(xR1a), R1a, R1a1, R1a1a, R1a1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1a1a7, R1b, R1b1a, R1b1a2, R1b1a2a2



GROUP 31
BCE 2000-1550, East Turkistan
Gumugou, Xinjiang:


    The Parallels with the Skulls from Other Regions:

    not a single close parallel.

    BCE 1500-1300, Altai Republic
    The least distant are two Fedorov series – from Rudny Altai (1.26

    BCE1500-1300, North East Kazakhstan
    Northeastern Kazakhstan (1.28).

    Y-DNA RESULTS:

    Existing Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    K*,
    R1a1a

    Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups:
    C, C3,
    E1b1b, E1b1b1a1b,
    F*,
    G2a, G2a2b,
    I1, I2a1b, I2b,
    K(xLT),
    N1c1-Tat,
    Q1a1-M120, R(xR1a),
    R1a, R1a1, R1a1a1b2-Z93, R1a1a7, R1b, R1b1a, R1b1a2, R1b1a2a2
Kullanıcı avatarı
TurkmenCopur
Genelkurmay Başkanı
Genelkurmay Başkanı
 
Mesajlar: 13985
Kayıt: 29 Eki 2010, 17:26

Re: Turk Nation: Anthropology-Archaeology-Genetic-Haplogroup

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 13 Nis 2015, 02:54

Now, lets analyze the ancient Y-DNA ve MT-DNA results we have published at this page: viewtopic.php?f=229&t=12209. One by one, lets look at the data which will attract our attention of the periods that are directly associated with close and older Turkish history. Out of these data, we are going to analyze especially the MT-DNA results which dont have a Y-DNA combination in the published paper results. Finally, lets determine which Y-DNA haplogroups could be found in future ancient dna studies within the Sakha and Huns. While making all these analysis, we should not forget the anthropological results that were published in the studies of Ismagülov and Tümen, in which they had concluded that the regions(East Eurasia) that are in the East, North and the Central of Mongolia consisted of people with majority of Mongoloid skull types, while in the regions(West Eurasia) that are in the West of Mongolia consisted of people with majority of Europoid skull types.

ALTAI REPUBLIC REGION

Lets start with the results of the Altai Republic. Between the years 4000 - 3000 BCE, in the Kaminnaya region MT-DNA haplogroups A4 and H/K are found. The H/K result is not clear, it could belong to MT-DNA haplogroups H or K. In here, A4 is considered Mongoloid(East Eurasian), and H and K are considered Europoid(West Eurasian). Between the years 1700 - 1900 AD, the MT-DNA haplogroup A8 that was found in the Yakut Turks was found in combination with Y-DNA haplogroup N1c1-Tat. Also, we should not forget that MT-DNA haplogroup H is the root of all H subgroups, which consists of H1 to H100. In the most scientific studies, these subgroups were not tested, the reason for this could be the budget problem they are experiencing, or because of not taking the study serious, or because of incompetency. In my analysis and predictions, i will accept that all MT-DNA H results are equal to the root H haplogroup, but in reality these H results could belong to subgroups like H1, H2, H3, H100, etc. For example, the subgroup of MT-DNA haplogroup H, namely H1 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F*, G2a, I2a, R1b, T1a. H2 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups N1c, R1a1. H3 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups G2a, I2. H6 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups R1b1a2a2. H7 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups Q1a2a1-L54. H13 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups R1b1a2a2.

The MT-DNA H haplogroup, is found, before and after BCE periods, in the West and East regions of Eurasia, in combination with Y-DNA haplogroups E1b1b, G2a, I1, I2, R1a, R1b. The MT-DNA K haplogroup, is found, before and after BCE periods, in the West and East regions of Eurasia, in combination with Y-DNA haplogroups F*, G2a and R1a.

Between the years 800 BCE - 100 AD, among the Sakha Turks from the Altai Republic region, the Y-DNA haplogroups J2, J2a and Q1a are found. Since the root/core of the Turk Nation is of West Eurasian origin(which all leads to the Sumerians whom are Proto Turks and spoke a Turk language), the finding of J2a at this period, probably being found among the Sakha/Scythian Turks, is very very important and shows that other West Eurasian Y-DNA haplogroups will be found at these regions during several periods, and also shows that these West Eurasian Y-DNA haplogroups are associated with the Proto Turks. For years, based on the Haplogroup J findings at the limited studies among the Turks of Türkiye, the US and Russian agents attacked the Turk Nation in an honourless way by trying to force the lies that Turks of Türkiye are different than the Turks of Central Asia, the J2 findings at the Allentoft et al 2015 paper should feel like a punch for those Turk haters. The same Y-DNA haplogroup is also found at the same study, at the South Siberian regions from the same period(Iron Age), again among the Sakha Turk graves.

In 1500 BCE, in the Karakol and Bertek regions MT-DNA haplogroups H and U5 are found. In the rest of our analysis, we will formulate the MT-DNA haplogroups that were found in combination with the associated Y-DNA haplogroups in before and after BCE periods, in the West and East regions of Eurasia, as "The MT-DNA haplogroup ... is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups ...". While doing this, i should mention that the predictions are based on the limited ancient DNA data that has been published in earlier ancient DNA studies. The MT-DNA haplogroup H is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups E1b1b, G2a, I1, I2, R1a, R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroup U5 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups E1b1b1a1b, G2a ve R(xR1a).

In 500 BCE, in a Sakha grave in the Kizil region, MT-DNA haplogroup N1a was found. The MT-DNA haplogroup N1a is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups G2a, H2 and I2. The haplotype of this MT-DNA N1a, is also found in the Linear Band Pottery graves. within the Linear Band Pottery graves Y-DNA haplogroups F*, G2a, H2, I ve T1a were found in the studies until now. Out of these, G1-G2a and T1a is found with high percentages in some of the nowadays tribes of Kazakh Turks whom live in Kazakhstan and the Altai Republic. And also, in some craniometrical studies, it is determined that the skulls of the Proto Turks in Kazakhstan of the Alakul culture are similar(there are a lot of parallels between the compared skulls) to the Linear Band Pottery skulls and the continuation (descendant) cultures of this LBK culture in the Neolithic Age. All this, show us that outside of the Y-DNA haplogroup R, other Europoid(West Eurasian) Y-DNA haplogroups like G and T could also be found in the Sakha, Huns and the Proto Turks.

The following schema is designed to enlighten this subject with the associated data and proof.

Resim

In here, we should not ignore the region name "Kizil" in the Altai Republic. As you all know, the name "Kizil" is being used by Alevi Turkomans between 1400 -1600 AD to identify themselves with the name "Kizil-Bas", which means "Kizil" head, which could be associated with the fact that the homeland of these ancient Alevi Turkomans lies in the Kizil region of the Altai Republic. At the same period, in Türkiye, there were many Oghuz tribes with the name "Kizil". For example, the name of the tribe of Ataturk's Father side family is "Kizil Oghuz"(and other variants of the word "Kizil").
And the Y-DNA haplogroups G2a, H2 ve I2 are considered as Europoid(West Eurasian).

At 500 BCE, in the Sebÿstei region, at a Sakha grave, there is found Y-DNA haplogruup R1a1a and MT-DNA haplogroup D. The father side of this person has an Europoid Y-DNA, and the mother side has a Mongoloid MT-DNA. In the same region, there is found in another Sakha grave, MT-DNA haplogroup F2a. The MT-DNA haplogroup F1 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups N1c1-Tat, O3 and R1a1.

Between the years 400 - 100 BCE, at the Pazirik Sakha's, MT-DNA haplogroups A, C, D, H, HV, J/U5, U5 are found. The MT-DNA haplogroup A8 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup N1c1-Tat. The MT-DNA haplogroup C is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C, C3, Q1a ve R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup D is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C, Q1a ve R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup H is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups E1b1b, G2a, I1, I2, R1a, R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroup HV is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F* and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup J1 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C6, G2 ve G2a. The MT-DNA haplogroup U5 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups E1b1b1a1b, G2a ve R(xR1a).

KAZAKHSTAN REGION

The Kazakhstan lands are archaelogically very important because of the Proto Turk findings, and is like a headquarter. This importance is of course also valid for the other Central Asian regions.

Between the years 1500 - 900 BCE, during the Bronze Age period, MT-DNA haplogroups HV*, H, I*, T*, T1, U5, U5a1 were found. The MT-DNA haplogroup HV is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F* and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup H* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups E1b1b, G2a, I1, I2, R1a, R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroups I3a, I1 and I4 are found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups I2a, R1b and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup T* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroup T1 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F*, G2a and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup U5 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups E1b1b1a1b, G2a and R(xR1a). The MT-DNA haplogroup U5a1 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups I2a, R1a and R1b.

Between the years 800 - 200 BCE, during the Sakha and early Hun period, MT-DNA haplogroups A*, G2, H*, M*, M4, T*, U*, U1, W* MT-DNA were found. The MT-DNA haplogroup A* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup Q. The MT-DNA haplogroup G2 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups N, N1c ve R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup H* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups E1b1b, G2a, I1, I2, R1a, R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroup M10 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C and Q1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup T* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroup U* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups R* and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup W is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups G2 ve G2a.

Between the years 500 BCE - 500 AD, during the Sakha and Hun period, the MT-DNA haplogroups D/X, H*, HV*, U*, U1 were found. The MT-DNA haplogroup D* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C, Q1a ve R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup X2 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup G2a. The MT-DNA haplogroup H is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups E1b1b, G2a, I1, I2, R1a, R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroup HV is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F* and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup U* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups R* and R1a.

BULGARIA REGION

Bulgaria, 700-1000 AD, Hunno-Turk Bulgarian Ancient MT-DNA

At the study named "Mitochondrial DNA Suggests a Western Eurasian origin for Ancient (Proto-) Bulgarians" 13 ancient samples of Hunno-Turk Bulgarian graves are studied for MT-DNA. During our earlier writings, we had proven with archaeological, anthropological, genetic and historical data, that it was a fact that the core of the Huns of Attila were considered to be of West Eurasian origin. It is a really simple fact, that the core of the Huns are direct descendants of the Sakha's/Scythians and Cimmerians, and that the core of the 6th century and later Turks are direct descendants of the Huns, all are of West Eurasian origin.

West Eurasian origin also means that they have Y-DNA and MT-DNA haplogroups that are considered to be West Eurasian. Also, we need to acknowledge that genetic studies show us that not even one modern or ancient population belongs to only one haplogroup. In stead, West Eurasian origin is equal to a common one anthropological skull type, and the same anthropological concept is equal to more than(a lot) one genetic haplogroups. Not to forget that the most ancient human language belongs to the West Eurasian Sumerian(Kenger/Kangar) language whom linguistically has a Turk origin. Talking about regions, West Eurasia is equal to all regions located between Western Mongolia and North-Western Europe. The Early Neolithic Sumerians, the Cimmerians, the Scythians/Sakha's, the Huns and the Turks dominated most of these West Eurasian regions beginning from the Neolithic Age.

S Karachanak-Yankova, the author of this study, concludes that Proto Bulgarians are of West Eurasian origin. Until here, there is no mistake. But, if we dont understand the chronological steps of the West Eurasian origin that i have described above, then we can not make healthy and logical conlusions about the origin of the Proto Bulgarians. And it is not possible that such an experienced group of academicians could not know about the fact that the Proto Bulgarian Kubrat(=Wolf) Khan o 632 AD was a direct descendant of earlier Royal Hunnish Families from the period of Attila Khan. And it is also not possible that they dont know that the people of the Proto Bulgarians was the exact same people as the Oghur(Oghuz) people whom were the core people of the Huns of Attila.

Like mentioned in the article, the Proto Bulgarians are traced back to the 7nd century AD, Bulgarian Khan Asparuh, whom is of Hun-Turk ethnic origin. These Proto Bulgarians are clearly descendants of the Huns of Attila, and after the collapse of the great Hun Empire, this empire continued with another name, the Turk Empire whom arose in the 6th century AD. And in time, the Bulgarian Khanate became a part of the Western Turk Khanate. These Proto Bulgarians are direct descendants to the core of the Huns of Attila, whom consist of the tribes like the Oghurs(Oghuz's), Acatziri, On-Oghur, Kutrigur, Saragur, etcetera. During the period of Attila, and also a couple of centuries earlier, the core of the Huns conducted a massive migration to the West Eurasian regions. Modern Turk tribes whom are historically directly related with these Proto Bulgarians are Chuvash(=Christian Proto Bulgarian Turks), Bulgar, Yugur(=Yogur=Ogur), Gagauz(=Christian Proto Bulgarian / Pecheneg / Uz Hun-Turks), and more.

The existance of more than one West Eurasian Y-DNA haplogroups, means that the Huns were the descendants of the West Eurasian Early Neolithic Proto Turks with their oldest human language, which is the Sumerian Turk language. The Early Neolithic Linear Band Keramik people, are also the same people as the Sumerians. The genetic structure of the Linear Band Keramik people shows many of the known West Eurasian Y-DNA haplogroups plus the East Eurasian haplogroup C. Other Early Neolithic cultures of Europe also show the same genetic structure. The sample of later Neolithic Ötzi of 3300 BCE belonged to a component of the same genetic structure. As we mentioned earlier, the body of Ötzi had many Proto Turk Stamps, which shows in an archaeologically way that the West Eurasian genetic structure is equal to Proto Turk/Hun/Scythians.

The following MT-DNA results were found among the present(2015) study about Proto Bulgarians:

H1: 3/13(23.1%)
H2: 2/13(15.4%)
H5: 1/13(7.7%)
H13: 1/13(7.7%)

U3: 1/13(7.7%)

J: 1/13(7.7%)
J1: 1/13(7.7%)

HV1: 1/13(7.7%)

T: 1/13(7.7%)
T2: 1/13(7.7%)

Analysis of the Prediction of the Y-DNA haplogroups of the 13 Proto Bulgarian Turks, based on our Ancient DNA database with Y-DNA and MT-DNA combinations (viewtopic.php?f=229&t=12210):

-The MT-DNA haplogroup H1 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F*, G2a, I2a, R1b and T1a.

-The MT-DNA haplogroup H2 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups N1c, R1a.

-The MT-DNA haplogroup H5 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup R1a.

-The MT-DNA haplogroup H13 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups R1b.

In our data we have no combination with MT-DNA haplogroup U3.

The MT-DNA haplogroups J and J1is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C6, G2 and G2a.

The MT-DNA haplogroup HV is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F* and R1a.

The MT-DNA haplogroup T* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup R1b.

The MT-DNA haplogroup T2 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F*, G2a and I2a.

At the study Richards et al 2000, it is told that the group of MT-DNA haplogroups H, J, T1, U3 suggests an Early Neolithic LBK expansion. At the present study, the same kind of pattern is found with a group of haplogroups H(...), HV, J+J1, T+T2, U3.

The predictions show possibilities for West Eurasian Y-DNA haplogroups C6, F*, G2, G2a, I2a, N1c, R1a, R1b and T1a among the 13 Proto Bulgarian Hun-Turks. Out of these, only C6 and N1c is an East Eurasian Y-DNA haplogroup. The rest, consists of 5 West Eurasian Y-DNA haplogroups, F*, G*(G2+G2a), I2a, R*(R1a+R1b), T1a.

For more data and analysis visit viewtopic.php?f=229&t=12218.

CHINA REGION

At the Chinese lands, between the years 37.475 - 2500 BCE, the Y-DNA haplogroups B, B4c, C*, N, O, O3 were found. These show us that these haplogroups belong to the East Eurasian group(Mongoloid).

Also, at the year 1000 BCE, at the graves that are accepted to have Han Chinese ethnic origin, the Y-DNA haplogroup Q1a1 was found together with N, O*, O2a, O3a. For years, the CIA agents conducted an assymetric psychological warfare by forcing the lie that the Y-DNA haplogroup of Proto Turks is only Q. And according to the limited sample having studies done about Turks in Türkiye, they forced the people to believe the LIE that the Turks in Türkiye are not Turks, because only a little frequency of Q was found(very limited studies). But, now we see that, Q is also found in the oldest Han Chinese graves. What to say if some Chinese people say that Q is of Sino Tibetian origin? Of course this is not true, because this haplogroup is also found in Hunnish graves in the East regions of Mongolia and Xinjiang. In here we must strongly remember the fact about the Proto Turkish cultures with sacred Deer and Wolves, Stone monuments, Rock-Art, same house building, Ceramics culture in the graves, and after the Bronze Age the invention of the kurgan type of graves, located at the Eurasian regions that are beginning from West Mongolia until Europe. This culture is the culture of the Huns of Attila that migrated heavily to the West Eurasian regions, during the years between 300-500 AD. This is the Proto Turkish culture, and it is traced back until the Neolithic Europe(LBK) and Middle East (Sumerians that migrated during Neolithic times from Central Asia to the Middle Near East), and consists of West Eurasian(Europoid) Y-DNA haplogroups and also have the root of the Europoid skull type(with variations of it). Determining that this West Eurasian culture was the root culture of the Proto Turks(Hun, Sakha, Andronovo, Pit Grave, Anau, other Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan cultures, LBK, Sumerians, ...), we see that Mongoloid haplogroup C1 and C6 is found in the oldest times of the Neolithic together with Europoid haplogroups. This means that Proto Turks consisted of people with both Europoid and Mongoloid haplogroups and skull types. Ötzi, whom had Proto Turk Stamps on his body, the fact that he belonged to the Y-DNA haplogroup G2a which has the highest frequency in the LBK culture until now, shows that the LBK culture is connected(in a range/chain form, new variated sub cultures occur out of the older ones) with the Sumerians and the Proto Turk cultures that are occured in the timeline until the Sakha's and Huns.

Between the years 2000 - 1500 BCE, at the Xinjiang Xiaohe region, there is found the haplogroups K* and R1a in a study with limited sample size of 12 persons. The K* haplogroup with the M9 mutation is the root ancestor of all Y-DNA haplogroups between L and T. During the early Neolithic Age, within Europe's old LBK Proto Turk culture, the fact that only the Y-DNA haplogroup T1a was found which is derived out of the K*-M9 haplogroup, shows that T1a could have a connection with the subgroups of haplogroup R1. At the next section i will give more detailed information about the predictions of several West Eurasian haplogroups in ancient Turkish graves.

Also, within the Xiaohe graves, there are found MT-DNA haplogroup results without Y-DNA data, these are H, K and M*. The MT-DNA haplogroup H is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups E1b1b, G2a, I1, I2, R1a, R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroup K is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F*, G2a and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup M10 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C and Q1a.

In Xinjiang, during the Sakha and Hun periods, between the years 800 - 100 BCE, the Europoid MT-DNA haplogroups R*, H, K, N, T, U, U2e, U4 are found. The MT-DNA haplogroup R* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups K(xLT) and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup H is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups E1b1b, G2a, I1, I2, R1a, R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroup K is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F*, G2a and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroups N1a and N1b are found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups G2a, H2 and I2a. In here, i want to call the attention to the G2a Y-DNA haplogroup. This haplogroup has been found in the graves of one of the earliest Proto Turkish culture like the LBK. The fact that the Y-DNA haplogroup G was found in the prediction of several MT-DNA haplogroups of ancient Central Asian graves, shows that there is a connection between Central Asia and Europe before BCE. The MT-DNA haplogroup T* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroup U* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups R* and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup U2e is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C1/C6, I2a1b, I2c2, R1a1. The MT-DNA haplogroup U4 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C(xC3), I, Q1a, R1a, R1b. In here, we should determinate that between the years 2900 - 2700 BCE, among the Sumerian graves there was found the MT-DNA haplogroups H, J1 ve U4 together with L2-L3. So, we can now also establish a connection beginning from the Neolithic Age cultures between Central Asia, Europe and the Sumerians, the details will be spoken of in the Syria section.

Between the years 600 - 300 BCE, during the Sakha and Hun period,in Xinjiang, the Europoid MT-DNA haplogroups U, W and Z were found. The MT-DNA haplogroup U* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups R* and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup W is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups G2 ve G2a. The MT-DNA haplogroup Z1a is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup I1.

At the year 500 BCE, in the Pengyang region, within the Hunnish graves, Y-DNA haplogroup Q1a1 was found.

Between the years 500 - 0 BCE, during the Sakha and Hun period, in Xinjiang, the Europoid MT-DNA haplogroups H, I, N, T, T1, T2, U3 were found. The MT-DNA haplogroup H is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups E1b1b, G2a, I1, I2, R1a, R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroups I1 and I3 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups I2a and R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroups N1a and N1b are found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups G2a, H2 and I2a. The MT-DNA haplogroup T* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroup T1 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F*, G2a and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup T2 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F*, G2a and I2a. In our data we have no combination with MT-DNA haplogroup U3.

Between the years 400 BCE - 200 AD, at the Barköl region of Xinjiang, among the Hunnish graves Y-DNA haplogroups Q, Q1a and Q1b are found. At 1000 BCE, the fact that Y-DNA haplogroup Q1a was found in Han Chinese graves, also shows that there could be a connection between the Turkish and Sino-Tibetian cultures-languages. I think, that if this connection will be studied and researched in the future, we will see that the origin of both of these two are the Sumerians. And also, i think that the Han Chinese are just like the Semitic(Arabian, Hebrew, etc.) and so called Indo-European(German, Slav, etc.) are originated out of the early Sumerians(Proto Turks) that lived at the East and West of Altai Mountains and stayed and settled at the East Eurasian regions(China, Korea) and created a new culture.

Between the years 220 BCE - 290 AD, during the Hun period, at Xinjiang, the MT-DNA haplogroups C, F1a, G, M, N, T2, U3 were found. The MT-DNA haplogroup C is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C, C3, Q1a and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup F1 and F1b is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups N1c, O3 and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup G* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup C. The MT-DNA haplogroup M10 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C and Q1a. The MT-DNA haplogroups N1a and N1b are found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups G2a, H2 and I2a. The MT-DNA haplogroup T2 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F*, G2a and I2a.

Between the year 0 BCE, during the Hun period, at the Heigouliang region of Xinjiang, the Y-DNA haplogroups Q, Q1a ve Q1b were found. The same genetic structure was also found among the Hunnish graves at the Barköl region of Xinjiang.

Between the years 500 - 600 AD, during the Gök Türk period, at the North East Taiyuan region, the MT-DNA haplogroups G and U5 were found. According to the bad intended Chinese academicians(C.Z Xie) that conducted the study, the structure of these graves are of the Central Asian culture, but the human images that were found in the archaeological ancient stones had a European face type. However, it is an already known fact that the majority types of skulls of the Proto Turks belonged to the Europoid type. And also, the Central Asian culture that the Chinese academicians are talking about is the Turkish culture. There is no sense in curling around, say directly Turk! If we look at the articles they have published we see that there is not even one word that is equal to the word "Turk", knowing the fact that this ancient DNA study was done on graves belonging to the Gök Türk period of time. All these show us that there is no difference between the modern cultures of the Chinese and the Germanics, thats why we need to accept the fact(when we are taking any political step) that the Chinese people are as much as Turk haters as the Germanic people. The MT-DNA haplogroup G* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup C. The MT-DNA haplogroup U5 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups E1b1b1a1b, G2a and R(xR1a).

At 1310 AD, the persons in the graves that were thought to be of Uygur Turkish origin, were state officials in the Yuan State of the grandchildren of Tolui Khan, and belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup Q. Between the years 1300 - 1400 AD, again among the graves of the Yuan state officials, the MT-DNA haplogroups B, D, G, Z were found. The MT-DNA Z is a West Eurasian haplogroup, and the MT-DNA haplogroup Z1a is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup I1.

Between the years 1400 - 1500 AD, the modern family descendants of Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar and later Zheng He(great grandson of Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar), who lived in the Yuan state, belonged to the Y-DNA haplogroup L1a. Again, according to the academicians that are in fact Chinese and USA CIA intelligence agents, Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar was of Persian origin, however the fact is that this not logical conclusion is a big LIE! Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar is of Turkish ethnic origin. At the source named "Jāmiʻat al-Malik ʻAbd al-ʻAzīz. Maʻhad Shuʻūn al Aqallīyat al-Muslimah" it is clearly mentioned that Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar is of Turkish ethnic origin. You all know that between the 11th and 13th centuries AD, Uzbekistan-Bukhara was ruled by the Turkish state of the Khwarazm Shahs that were of Turkish ethnic origin. Because of the by the strengthening of the Selcukid and Mongol states, the state of the Khwarazm Shahs is falling down, and because of this the family with Turkish ethnic origin of Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar becomes a state official of the empire of Genghis Khan. And also, it is already a fact that the family trees of Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar shows that his family settled into China within the Song dynasty(960 - 1279 AD). And this shows, that during the handover(transition) period between the Khwarazm Shah and the Mongol states, his family settled into the lands of the Mongol empire(China is part of the Mongol empire). While this whole subject is that simple, it is very worrisome to see that the Chinese and Germanic academicians which have hate crime feelings(against Turks) in their hearths, are on purpose making such conclusions that are not in accordance with the science and logics. Whe should be cautious about these hate crame activities and these are situations in which it is necessary to take some measures. The fact that the Europoid(West Eurasian) Y-DNA haplogroup L1a is found within such a deep-rooted Turkish family, shows again that during the Proto Turk, Sakha, Hun and Gök Türk periods these type of Europoid Y-DNA haplogroups could be found, in future ancient dna studies.

HUNGARY REGION

Between the years 6000 - 5450 BCE, in Hungary, the MT-DNA haplogroup C5 that is considered to be of Mongoloid origin is found. In our data we have no combination with MT-DNA haplogroup C5. Approximately at the same period, Between the years 5800 - 5500 BCE, in Hungary, more then one MT-DNA haplogroups that are considered as Europoid are found. Out of these haplogroups, i want to attract the attention the MT-DNA haplogroup N1a. This MT-DNA haplogroup N1a is rarely seen in the ancient graves, and is also found among a Sakha grave in the Altai Republic. In the same period, the Y-DNA haplogroups F*, I2a and G2a are found.

Between the years 5310 - 4950 BCE, the Y-DNA haplogroup C6 that is considered Mongoloid has been found among the members of the Linear Bandkeramik(Band Pottery) culture. Approximately at the same period, at several regions in Europe, among the members of the same and variated(same root) cultures, the Europoid Y-DNA haplogroups E1b, F*, H2, G2, G2a, I, I1, I2a, R1b, T1a are found. If we should shorten these results, during the LBK culture period, in Europe the Y-DNA haplogroups C, E, F, G, H, I, R and T are found, and they lived together as the members of one Proto Turk Nation(according to the results until now). It means that these people kept living together for tens of thousands of years, even before the occurence of the mutations they lived together. Also, MT-DNA D1/G1a1 that is considered as Mongoloid is found during the same period. During other ancient periods, the MT-DNA haplogroup G* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup C at the East Eurasian regions. In the same way, the MT-DNA haplogroup D* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C, Q1a and R1a. The genetic structure of 6000 - 4950 BCE, i mentioned above belongs to the Neolithic LBK(and some variations) Proto Turk culture.

Before the period of the Sakha rule in Hungary, between the years 1270 - 830 BCE, at the same region, the Y-DNA haplogroups J2a1(Europoid) and N(Mongoloid) were found. It is believed that during this period at Hungary the Cimmerians were living, but it is not determinated exactly. But, these Sakha's and Cimmerians had similar cultures, and i think that both are originated from the much earlier(Neolithic period) Proto Turks.

Between the years 800 - 1000 AD, in Hungary, at two graves of the On-Ogur Turk Hunnish tribe, Y-DNA haplogroup N1c was found. At this point, we should remember that the haplogroup N1c was found among the nowadays Yakutistan Sakha's and the ancient Xiongnu Turks.

Between the years 900 - 1100 AD, at the graves of Romanian and Hungarian On-Ogur Turk Hunnish tribe, the MT-DNA haplogroups A, B, M, N9a, H, HV, JT, N1a, R, T, T2, T3, U, U4, X were found. Out of these A, B, M and N9a are considered to be Mongoloid, while H, HV, JT, N1a, R, T, T2, T3, U, U4 are considered to be Europoid.
The MT-DNA haplogroup H is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups E1b1b, G2a, I1, I2, R1a, R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroup HV is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F* and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroups N1a and N1b are found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups G2a, H2 and I2a. The MT-DNA haplogroup R* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups K(xLT) and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup T* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroup T2 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F*, G2a and I2a. The MT-DNA haplogroup U* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups R* and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup U4 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C(xC3), I, Q1a, R1a, R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroup X2 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup G2a.

Between the years 1200 - 1300 AD, at the graves of the Kuman Turk Hunnish tribe, the MT-DNA haplogroups D, H, JT, U, U3, V were found. Out of these, D is considered to be Mongoloid, while H, JT, U, U3, V are considered to be Europoid.
If you paid attention, you could have seen the fact that beginning from the Neolithic Age until the Middle Age, the haplogroups that are considered Mongoloid and Europoid were found among the graves of the ancient Turkish and Proto Turkish graves, and these were living together as one nation.
The MT-DNA haplogroup D* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C, Q1a and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup H is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups E1b1b, G2a, I1, I2, R1a, R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroup U* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups R* and R1a.

SLOVAKIA REGION

Between the years 800 - 900 AD, at the graves of the Avar Turk Hunnish tribe, the MT-DNA haplogroup U7 was found, and is considered to be Europoid.

MONGOLIA REGION

At the year 2742 BCE, at the Altai Mountains region of Mongolia, the Y-DNA haplogroup Q is found.

Between the years 1800 - 1100 BCE, at the Altai Mountains region of Mongolia, the MT-DNA haplogroup D is found. The MT-DNA haplogroup D* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C, Q1a and R1a.

Between the years 1371 - 1011 BCE, at the Altai Mountains region of Mongolia, the Y-DNA haplogroups Q1a and R1a is found.

At the same period, the MT-DNA haplogroup D, D5a and H1b were found. The MT-DNA haplogroup D5a is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups N1c. The MT-DNA haplogroup H1 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F*, G2a, I2a, R1b and T1a.

Between the years 944 - 914 BCE, at the Altai Mountains region of Mongolia, the Y-DNA haplogroup C is found.

Between the years 500 - 200 BCE, at the Pazirik region of the Altai Mountains, the MT -DNA haplogroups A, C, D, G2a, HV2, HV6, J, K, T1, U5a1 were found among the Sakha graves. Out of these A, C, D, G2a are considered to be Mongoloid, while HV2, HV6, J, K, T1, U5a1 are considered to be Europoid. The MT-DNA haplogroup A* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup Q. The MT-DNA haplogroup C is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C, C3, Q1a and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup D* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C, Q1a and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroups G2 and G2a is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups N, N1c ve R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup HV is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F* and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup HV6 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup R*. The MT-DNA haplogroup J is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C6, G2 and G2a. The MT-DNA haplogroup K is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F*, G2a and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup T1 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F*, G2a and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup U5a1 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups I2a, R1a and R1b.

Between the years 300 - 200 BCE, at the Hunnish graves of the Egyin Gol region of North Mongolia, the Y-DNA haplogroups C3, N1c and Q are found. The MT-DNA results which dont have any Y-DNA data are these: A, B4b, C, D4, D5a, F1b, G2a, M, J1, U5a1a. Out of these A, B4b, C, D4, D5a, F1b, G2a, M are considered to be Mongoloid, while J1, U2 and U5a1a are considered to be Europoid. At this point, we should remember the seperation that anthropolog and archaeolog Ismagülov and Tumen made about the West and East+North of Mongolia. The majority of the Hunnish groups that had the Europoid skull type, lived at the Western Parts of Mongolia(from Kazakhstan to the other Central Asian regions).
The MT-DNA haplogroup A* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup Q. The MT-DNA haplogroup D4 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C, C3, N1c, Q, Q1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup D5a is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups N1c. The MT-DNA haplogroup F1 and F1b is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups N1c, O3 and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup M10 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C and Q1a.
The MT-DNA haplogroup J1 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C6, G2 and G2a. The MT-DNA haplogroup U2 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup C1/C6. The MT-DNA haplogroup U5a1 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups I2a, R1a and R1b.

Between the years 400 - 100 BCE, at the Hunnish graves of the Duurlig Nars region of North-East Mongolia, the Y-DNA haplogroups C3 and R1a are found.

RUSSIA REGION

Between the years 600 - 300 BCE, at the Rostov(South-West of Ukraine and North-East of the Black Sea) region of Russia, at the Sakha graves, the MT-DNA haplogroups A4, C, D, D4b1, F1b, H, H2a1, I3, T1a, T2, U2e, U5a, U7 were found. Out of these A4, C, D, D4b1, F1b are considered to be Mongoloid, while H, H2a1, I3, T1a, T2, U2e, U5a, U7 are considered to be Europoid.
The MT-DNA haplogroup A* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup Q. The MT-DNA haplogroup C is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C, C3, Q1a and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup D* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C, Q1a and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup D4 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C, C3, N1c, Q, Q1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup F1 and F1b is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups N1c, O3 and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup H is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups E1b1b, G2a, I1, I2, R1a, R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroup H2 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups N1c, R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroups I1 and I3 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups I2a and R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroup T1 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F*, G2a and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup T2 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F*, G2a and I2a. The MT-DNA haplogroup U2e is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C1/C6, I2a1b, I2c2, R1a1. The MT-DNA haplogroup U5a is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups I2a, R1a, R1b.

Between the years 2500 - 800 BCE, at the Russian regions, among the Yamna culture in which the Kurgan type of graves are found, the Y-DNA haplogroups I2a and R1b are found. This again shows that among the Proto Turks, more then one West Eurasian Y-DNA haplogroups are present. The finding of I2a and R1b, shows that the West Eurasian Y-DNA haplogroups(F*, G2a, H2, R1b1, T1a, etc...) found among the earlier Ötzi and much earlier cultures of the European Neolithic period should be found among the ancient Proto Turks. The fact that R1b and I2a were found among the Neolithic European(Spain) samples, and the fact that these were also found among the Bronze Age Yamna culture samples whom are located at Russian-Caucasian-Central Asian regions, proofs this statement/thesis. I am confident, that when more detailed studies will be performed in the future, that all these will be proven. Thats why the final Allentoft et al 2015 study results performs a delete-format process on all bad habits and bad intended Turk haters, from now on all bad habits are history and not realistic anymore, thats why from now on everyone should accept the obvious fact that West Eurasian Y-DNA haplogroups are of Proto Turk origin! And also, there are only 3 basic craniometric types in anthropology, and each of them are equal to more than one haplogroups, and also among the Proto Turks, both the West and East Eurasian skull types are found, and also, we should see, realize and accept the fact that the core/root of the Hun and Sakha Turks(Oghurs, Acatziris, etc...) had West Eurasian skull types.

Between the years 1800 BCE - 400 AD, at the Krasnoyarsk region of Russian South Siberia, at the Andronovo(3x) and Sakha(7x) graves the Y-DNA haplogroups C(xC3) and R1a were found. At this point, the subject i want to attract attention to, is the fact that if we look at the sample sizes of these kind of academic studies, we see they consist of such limited numbers.

The French academician Christine Keyser Traqcui, in her studies about the Turkish history, we see that she is particularly searching piece by piece for a region were there is found a single haplogroup, and after she eliminates and filters the other unwanted results, she publishes the results. It looks like she and other academicians like her, have a secret agenda for publishing only certain results, however it is scientific to publish all Y-DNA results you have found during your studies, and then make a real set of conclusions, other wise you are trying to camouflage the real picture, and this is in the contrast of scientific logic and the truth.

Christine Keyser Traqcui, for example, is publishing the 24 Y-STR haplotypes of the Xiongnu graves of the Egyin Gol region of North Mongolia, but after a couple of years, in a particularly selected(searched and filtered out other available data) way she only publishes 3 Y-SNP haplogroup results out of these 24 Y-STR haplotypes, also not to forget that it is the North + East Region of Mongolia(not the Western regions including Central Asia) were the samples were taken of. And it is not a coincidence that 1 of the published 3 Y-SNP results is N1c, and that she is making a connection between this result and the N1c that was found in her recently published study among the ancient Middle Age Yakut/Sakha graves.

However, it is a fact that in such situations, the research is not conducted neutrally. Within the West European, Chinese and Russian researches, we can find big signs on the global hate crime that is committed against modern Turks. For example, if we look at the serious Y-DNA studies done about the Neolithic and Bronze Age Europe, we see that the sample sizes are at least 30-40. Not to forget to mention the precision and unbiased strategies about the regions of the sample selection, all regions of Europe(South, West, Central, East, North) are equally studied and taken seriously.

And if we look at the studies done about the Turkish history, for example if we look at the limited studies done about the Hunnish graves, we are experiencing a continuous lack of seriousness. The sample sizes are always like 3 or 4 samples, or maximum 9 or 10, and most of these studies are about the MT-DNA(Y-DNA is always neglected).
And also, it is a fact that, at the anthropological studies done about countries that are located at the Western regions beginning from Mongolia(Kazakhstan, Altai Replublic, Uzbekistan, Kirgizistan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, India+Pakistan, etc), the majorty of the skull types of the Hunnish graves are of Europoid type. Somehow, if we look at the unserious and limited studies done about the Huns, we see that the samples are all taken from the North and East Regions beginning from Mongolia.

Between the years 500 BCE - 500 AD, at a region located at the Russian South-West Siberia(close to the North borders of Kazakhstan), at the graves that are thought to be of Sakha origin and belong to the Sargat culture, the MT-DNA haplogroups A, C, T1, Z are found. Out of these A and C are considered to be Mongoloid, while T1 and Z are considered to be Europoid.
The MT-DNA haplogroup A* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup Q. The MT-DNA haplogroup C is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C, C3, Q1a and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup T1 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F*, G2a and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup Z1a is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup I1.

SYRIA REGION

Between the years 2900 - 2700 BCE, at the Mari region of Syria, among the Sumerian(Kenger) graves, the MT-DNA haplogroups H, J1a, U4 ve L2 were found. Out of these L2 is considered to be Negroid(African), while H, J1a, U4 are considered to be Europoid and these are also found among the ancient graves located at the graves between Europe and the Altai Mountains.

In here, the actual interesting finding is the fact that African and West Eurasian MT-DNA haplogroups are found as members of one nation, and these found among the oldest source of Proto Turks, the Sumerians. I think that this, if there will be done a serious research in the future, will show that the cultures and the genetic structure of the nations of the African continent are also originated out of the early Sumerians(Proto Turks).

And also, i think that the majority of African Y-DNA haplogroup frequencies belonged to E. Knowing the fact that this E has been found in the West Eurasian regions, and also the fact that the Mongoloid haplogroups like C and D are also found in East Eurasian regions, the fact that the phenotypes of some African nation show a mixed East Eurasian and African type, the fact that the West Eurasian Y-DNA haplogroups T1a and R1b are found together among nowadays African nations, the fact that in the religious ceremonies we see similar elements like in the Sky God religion(of Proto Turks), all these facts show us that the the history of the African nations of before BCE could have originated from the Proto Turks from the Altai regions, and that a particular group of people conducted a permanent migration and settled in the African regions.

The MT-DNA haplogroup H is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups E1b1b, G2a, I1, I2, R1a, R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroup J1 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C6, G2 and G2a. The MT-DNA haplogroup U4 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C(xC3), I, Q1a, R1a, R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroup U4 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C(xC3), I, Q1a, R1a, R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroup L2/L3 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup R1b.

TÜRKİYE REGION

Between the years 6000 - 4000 BCE, at the Antakya-Reyhanlı region of Türkiye, at the graves that are given a made-up name like Ubaid, the MT-DNA haplogroup H3a was found. The MT-DNA haplogroup H3 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups G2a and I2.
It is very probable that the Ubaids are ethnically connected with the Sumerians. And also, if you see the West European academicians make statements like "Unknown origin" about the associated group of people, it is for sure that this group has Turkish origins. Because of this, the probability is very high that these Ubaids are the same as the Suemrians.

YAKUTIA REGION

Between the years 1400 - 1900 AD, at Yakutistan, the Y-DNA haplogroups N1c and N(xN1c) are found.

SPAIN REGION

Between the years 5311 - 5000 BCE, at Spain, the Y-DNA haplogroups C1/C6, E1b, F*, G2a, I2a, R1b are found. Out of these C1/C6 is considered to be Mongoloid, while E1b, F*, G2a, I2a, R1b are considered to be Europoid.
To see again this same structure(Europoid and Mongoloid haplogroups live together as One Nation) at another region were Proto Turks lived(at such an old time of period), is a finding that shows that the Turkish Nation consists of people that lived together before and after the occurence of mutations, not knowing about the fact that mutations occured.

ITALY REGION

At the year 3300 BCE, in Italy, at the Austria borders region, the Y-DNA haplogroup G2a is found among the Proto Turk grave that is called Ötzi. Among the details of the information at viewtopic.php?f=2&t=12212, it is proven that our Proto Turkish ancestor Ötzi had Proto Turkish stamps on his body. After the detailed researches and studies, it is an unavoidable fact that Ötzi is a Proto Turk. The found Y-DNA haplogroup G2a, is found in nowadays Kazakh Turk tribe with frequencies reaching %90. If we look at the origin of this haplogroup, we see that during the 6th millenium, at the early Neolithic Age of Europe, we see that the Y-DNA haplogroup G is found together with the Y-DNA haplogroups that are considered to be Europoid like F*, H, I, R1b and T1a. These results belong to the Proto Turkish sub cultures like Linear Bandkeramik(Band Pottery) and Els Trocs, and these are the Proto Turkish cultures of the early Neolithic Age of the regions beginning from Germany to Hungary to Spain.

Between the years 700 - 200 BCE, at the Etruscan graves, the MT-DNA haplogroups J/T and Pre-HV were found. I think that all of us know now about the fact that the Etrucans were a tribe of the Proto Turks. And also, it is most probably that the Basques and Etruscans are of the same ethnic origin. The MT-DNA haplogroup J is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C6, G2 and G2a. The MT-DNA haplogroup T* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroup HV is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F* and R1a.

NORWAY REGION

Between the years 550 - 1050 AD, at the Viking graves, the MT-DNA haplogroups H, H1a, HV, I, J, J1b, K, T, U, U4, U5a, U7, V were found. We should determinate that the alphabet of the ancient Vikings and the ancient Gök Türks were the same. Other than this, at the nowadays tribes of the descendants of the Vikings, we see Turkish names like "Hakan". It is a fact that the Vikings and the Fin-Ugors are originated from the Proto Turks, but when the cultural seperation took place should be determined with serious researches.
The MT-DNA haplogroup H is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups E1b1b, G2a, I1, I2, R1a, R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroup H1 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F*, G2a, I2a, R1b and T1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup HV is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F* and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroups I1 and I3 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups I2a and R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroups J and J1is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C6, G2 and G2a. The MT-DNA haplogroup K is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F*, G2a and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup T* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroup U* is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups R* and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup U4 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups C(xC3), I, Q1a, R1a, R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroup U5a is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups I2a, R1a, R1b.

DENMARK REGION

Between the years 1000 - 1074 AD, at the Viking graves, the MT-DNA haplogroups H, H5a, I, K, T2, U5a1a, X2c were found. The MT-DNA haplogroup H is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups E1b1b, G2a, I1, I2, R1a, R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroup H5 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroups I3a, I1 and I4 are found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups I2a, R1b and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup K is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F*, G2a and R1a. The MT-DNA haplogroup T2 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups F*, G2a and I2a. The MT-DNA haplogroup U5a1 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroups I2a, R1a and R1b. The MT-DNA haplogroup X2 is found in combination with the Y-DNA haplogroup G2a.

GERMANY REGION

Between the years 5500 - 3086 BCE, at Germany, the Y-DNA haplogroups F*, G2a, I2a, R*, T1a were found. These are members of the Linear Bandkeramik(Band Pottery) culture and the continuation cultures.

Between the years 2800 - 1780 BCE, the Y-DNA haplogroups I2, I2a, I2c, R1a, R1b were found. These are members of the Bronze Age cultures that are occured out of the Linear Bandkeramik(Band Pottery) culture.

LIECHTENSTEIN REGION

Between the years 1000 - 700 BCE, the Y-DNA haplogruoups I2b, R1a, R1b were found.
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TurkmenCopur
Genelkurmay Başkanı
Genelkurmay Başkanı
 
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Kayıt: 29 Eki 2010, 17:26

Re: Turk Nation: Anthropology-Archaeology-Genetic-Haplogroup

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 13 Nis 2015, 02:55

CONLUSION

As a conclusion, beginning from the Neolithic Age Sumerians(around 5000 BCE), the two factors that defines the Turkish Nation, are the Turks with Europoid and Mongoloid skull types that lived together before(the periods of tens on thousands of years ago) and after the occuring of the mutations. And also, it should be mentioned, that if we look at the Hun Turkish culture during the period of Attila, we see that the deers were of great importance for them, and together with this, if we look at the skulls of the Sakha and Hun period during the Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages, at the West Side(Central Asian regions) beginning from Mongolia, we see that the basis belongs to the Europoid(West Eurasian) skull type. And culturally, the culture of this Turkish group of the West Side, the grave structure, the ceramics inside the graves, etc. all are originated from the the Sumerian and LBK culture, and even they are the descendants of the rock paintings from the first humans of tens of thousands of years ago.

The pictures with Deers and the Turkish Stamps on the ancient stones, also belong to the culture of this Western group of Mongolia. If we look at the lands of the Sakha and the Huns, we see that they consist of the same West Eurasian regions. If we look at the Pazirik carpets of the Altai Mountains that define this Western group, we can again see the same Proto Turkish culture. We should also not forget that the Huns are direct descendants of the Sakha's and that they are of the same nation. It is certainly not a coincidence that the name of the Aghacheri Hunnish tribe is the same during the Sakha period as a Sakha tribe. If we look at the pictures drawn by ancient painters about our ancestor Attila, we can see that his face type looks more like a West Eurasian type.

During the Sakha period, big migrations were carried out, but they were not exactly permanent, the new cultures(Greek, Germanic, Armenian, etc.) that the Roman empire created and presented became dominant in the period after the Sakha's. But, during the following periods, during the period of Attila, the Huns carried out very extensive and permanent migrations, and the tribes that will represent the West Gök Türk Khanate(Khazars, Bulgars, Magyars, Pecheneks, On-Ogur's, Oghuz'es, Kumans, Kipchaks, Kimaks, etc...) after this period, settled at these West Eurasian regions permanently, and theid descendants kept living here until today. All these tribes are the essential elements of the Turkish nation. For example, if we look at the researches about the skull types of the Kimak Turks, we see that they belong %73 to the Europoid type.
It is mentioned that the Proto Turks that lived at the East Eurasian regions, belonged to the culture that is defined as the "Slab Grave" culture, but if the details of this East Eurasian culture will be researched seriously, i think it is most probably that there will be found common points with the West Eurasian group.

And another fact is that the members of these East and West groups even lived together during the Neolithic(approximately 5000 BCE) Age period at the Hungary and Spain regions. So, as a conclusion, the Turkish Nation is equal to the people with Europoid(West Eurasian) and Mongoloid(East Eurasian) skull types that lived together(tens of thousands of years before and after the occuring of the genetic mutations) as one Noble, Nationalist and Justice Nation!

The number of Y-DNA haplogroups that define the Europoid(West Eurasian) and Mongoloid(East Eurasian) skull types consist of more then one. According to our data, these two old Turkish groups are constituted of these haplogroups(of course, according to the unserious and limited Y-DNA studies that were done until now):

West Eurasian Turkish Group:
E1b, F*, G2, G2a, H2, I*, I1, I2, I2a, I2c, J2a, K*, L1a, R*, R(xR1a), R1a, R1b, T1a

East Eurasian Turkish Group:
C*, C(xC3), C1, C3, C6, N*, N(xN1c), N1c, O3, Q*, Q1a, Q1b

In here, we can seperate the West Eurasian Turkish Group into 3 main mutation groups:

Haplogroups formed out of DE-M145: E1b
Haplogroups formed out of CF-P143: F*, G2, G2a, H2, I*, I1, I2, I2a, I2c, J2a
Haplogroups formed out of K-M9: K*, L1a, R*, R(xR1a), R1a, R1b, T1a

We can seperate the East Eurasian Turkish Group into 2 main mutation groups:

Haplogroups formed out of CF-P143: C*, C(xC3), C1, C3, C6
Haplogroups formed out of K-M9: N*, N(xN1c), N1c, O3, Q*, Q1a, Q1b

And now, lets analyze the study named "Comparison of Y-chromosomal lineage dating using either evolutionary or genealogical Y-STR mutation rates" that has found the similarities between the Y-STR haplotypes of several Y-SNP haplogroups, according to the structure of the Y-STR values.

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As seen from the picture, at the end of the study, very interesting ties are established between the Y-DNA haplogroups.

The Y-DNA haplogroups that are similar to each other, are divided into 6 groups. Within each group, the the Y-STR haplotypes of the Y-DNA haplogroups are similar to each other.

Group 1:
C1a, C3e ve G2a

Analysis:
It is interesting to see the 2 haplogroups together that are considered Mongoloid and Europoid. And just like i mentioned in my earlier determinations, we should remember that the Proto Turks, were people with Mongoloid and Europoid skull types whom lived together as one Turkish Nation. And also, the details about it will be discussed at the following section, the Kazakh Turks of nowadays Turkish tribes, have in several Kazakh regions majority frequencies of C and G. The detailed analysis of the haplogroup C and G results among the ancient graves, you can find at the previous sections. The fact that the haplotypes of C and G are similar, can maybe declared with the argument that tens of thousands of years ago before and after the occurence of the genetic mutations, the members of these 2 haplogroups kept living together as a tribe of the Turkish Nation. In our data, the haplogroups C1, C3, C6 and G2a are found in some ancient Turkish graves.

Group 2:
N1c, O2a, O2b, O3a

Analysis:
In here, all haplogroups are considered as Mongoloid. In our data, the haplogroups N1c and O3 are found in some ancient Turkish graves.

Group 3:
D2a, E1a, E1b

Analysis:
Haplogroup D is considered as Mongoloid, and Haplogroup E is considered as Europoid. In our data, the haplogroups N1c and O3 are found in some ancient Turkish graves. In our data, the haplogroups E1b is found in some ancient Turkish graves.

Group 4:
I1a, I2a, J2a, J2b

Analysis:
Haplogroups I and J are considered as Europoid. In our data, the haplogroups I1a, I2a, J2a are found in some ancient Turkish graves.

Group 5:
R1a, R1b, Q1a, T1a

Analysis:
Haplogroup Q is considered as Mongoloid, and Haplogroups R1a, R1b, T1a are considered as Europoid. In our data, the haplogroups Q1a, R1a, R1b ve T1a are found in some ancient Turkish graves.

During the researches of Anatole Klyosov, the fact that the Y-STR haplotypes of R1a, R1b and T1a are similar to each other was mentioned as a pretty interesting case. According to Anatole Klyosov, among the basic haplotypes of R1a and T1a, out of 22 Y-STR markers 15(and also the slow ones) are the same.

And also, at the study named "Human Y chromosome haplogroup R-V88: a paternal genetic record of early mid Holocene trans-Saharan connections and the spread of Chadic languages", it is mentioned that at the sub-Sahara African regions, out of the nowadays Europoid haplogroups that are formed out of the K-M9 marker(from L to T), only the haplogroups R1b and T1a are found together, and they mention that the origin of these two haplogroups is located outside of Africa and that these migrated from Asia to Africa thousands of years ago. This shows that there is a connection between the haplogroups R and T. The reason of this connection, and the reason that Q, R and T are in the same group, again shows that the members of these three haplogroups(Mongoloid and Europoid) can maybe declared with the argument that tens of thousands of years ago before and after the occurence of the genetic mutations, the members of these 3 haplogroups kept living together as a tribe of the Turkish Nation.

And also, among nowadays Bhutanese people(The country is located at between the borders of China and India), very old(maybe the oldest among the modern humans) haplotypes of the R and T haplogroups were found.

Finally, it is also a fact that the Q and R haplogroups are both formed out of the P-M45 haplogroup, this could also be a reason for the similarity of the Y-STR haplotypes between Q and R.

Group 6:
A, B

Analysis:
The haplogroups A and B are considered to be of African(Negroid) origin, but if these haplogroups will be found in future studies among Proto Turkish graves, and if there happens a detailed research about it, different determinations could be made. For example, for years haplogroup E was considered to be of African origin, but after the finding of haplogroup E among the members of the Proto Turkish cultures of Neolithic Europe, the persons that defended these hypothesis's turned 180 degrees from their thoughts about the origin of this haplogroup.

Another study that compares the Y-STR haplotypes of the Y-DNA haplogroups is named "Convergence of Y chromosome STR haplotypes from different SNP haplogroups compromises accuracy of haplogroup prediction".

According to the results of this study, 4 groups are created.

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Group 1:
C, D, E

Analysis:
According to the determination, the members of these haplogroups migrated from Africa.

Group 2:
F, G, H, I, J

Analysis:
According to the determination, the members of these haplogroups migrated to the Middle East and Europe.

Group 3:
L, T, K, N, O

Analysis:
According to the determination, the members of these haplogroups are members of East Asia.

Group 4:
P, Q, R

Analysis:
According to the determination, the members of these haplogroups migrated from the Central Eurasian regions to the American continent regions.
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TurkmenCopur
Genelkurmay Başkanı
Genelkurmay Başkanı
 
Mesajlar: 13985
Kayıt: 29 Eki 2010, 17:26

Re: Turk Nation: Anthropology-Archaeology-Genetic-Haplogroup

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 13 Nis 2015, 02:57

WEST EURASIAN TURKISH GROUP(THE EURASIAN PARTS WEST OF MONGOLIA):
E1b, F*, G2, G2a, H2, I*, I1, I2, I2a, I2c, J2a, K*, L1a, R*, R(xR1a), R1a, R1b, T1a

EAST EURASIAN TURKISH GROUP(THE EURASIAN PARTS EAST OF MONGOLIA):
C*, C(xC3), C1, C3, C6, N*, N(xN1c), N1c, O3, Q*, Q1a, Q1b

Now, lets analyze which of the above haplogroups are found with high frequencies among the nowadays Turkish tribes.

Y-DNA Haplogroup E

Among the Bulgar Turks, E1b1b1a1 and E1b1b1b2a is found with 41,4%(48/116) frequency.

Among the Gagauz Turks, E* is found with 20.4%(10/49).

Among the Karai Turks, E1b1b1 and E1b1b1a1b2 is found with 19,1%(4/21).

Among the Chuvash Turks E1b1b1 is found with 13,6%(6/44).

Among the Proto Turks, E1b1b1a1b is found in Spain at the year 5000 BCE.

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Zeki Velidi Togan:

The Ogurs whom came with the Huns, and the ones who came to East Europe earlier, if we look at their names, we see that they were a tribe who pronounced the letter "R" in stead of the letter "Z"(Ogur in stead of Oguz). That is to say: the names of the Ogur subtribes, like "Kutrigur" and "Otrigur" should be illustrated like "Tokuzugur" and "Otuzoğuz". Together with this, "Beşgur:Başgur", "Belgur: Bulgar", "Onogur: Onoguz".


Arthur Koestler:

The Turkish-speaking Karaites [a fundamentalist Jewish sect] of the Crimea, Poland, and elsewhere have affirmed a connection with the Khazars, which is perhaps confirmed by evidence from folklore and anthropology as well as language. There seems to be a considerable amount of evidence attesting to the continued presence in Europe of descendants of the Khazars.

In this respect they resembled the Karaites, a fundamentalist sect which originated in the eighth century in Persia and spread among Jews all over the world particularly in 'Little Khazaria', i.e., the Crimea. Dunlop and some other authorities surmised that between Bulan and Obadiah (i.e., roughly between 740 and 800) some form of Karaism prevailed in the country, and that orthodox 'Rabbinic' Judaism was only introduced in the course of Obadiah's religious reform. The point is of some importance because Karaism apparently survived in Khazaria to the end, and villages of Turkish-speaking
Karaite Jews, obviously of Khazar origin, still existed in modern times (see below, Chapter V, 4).

Thus Khazaria was very much 'on the map', in the literal and metaphorical sense, for the leaders of the ecclesiastical hierarchy of oriental Jewry; but at the same time the Khazars were regarded with certain misgivings, both on racial grounds and because of their suspected leanings toward the Karaite heresy.

One eleventh-century Hebrew author, Japheth ibn-Ali, himself a Karaite, explains the word mamzer, 'bastard', by the example of the Khazars who became Jews without belonging to the Race.

His contemporary, Jacob ben-Reuben, reflects the opposite side of this ambivalent attitude by speaking of the Khazars as 'a single nation who do not bear the yoke of the exile, but are great warriors paying no tribute to the Gentiles'

They call their ancient dialect 'the language of Kedar' - just as Rabbi Petachia in the twelfth century called their habitat north of the Black Sea 'the land of Kedar'; and what he has to say about them-sitting in the dark through the Sabbath, ignorance of rabbinical learning - fits their sectarian attitude.

Accordingly, Zajaczkowski, the eminent contemporary Turcologist, considers the Karaites from the linguistic point of view as the purest present-day representatives of the ancient Khazars. 18 About the reasons why this sect preserved its language for about half a millennium, while the main body of Khazar Jews shed it in favour of the Yiddish lingua franca, more will have to be said later.

According to the first all-Russian census in 1897, there were 12894 Karaite Jews living in the Tsarist Empire (which, of course, included Poland). Of these 9666 gave Turkish as their mother tongue (i.e., presumably their original Khazar dialect), 2632 spoke Russian, and only 383 spoke Yiddish.


Y-DNA Haplogroup F

The haplogroup F is more found among the nations in Caucasia, among the Abazas 29%, among the Kabardins 24%, among the Lezgi's 32%, among the Ossetians 41%. These Caucausian nations are also descendants of the Sakha's, so they are also originated out of the Proto Turks. For example the root of the Kabardin name is "Kabar". "Kabar" is the name of an ancient Khazar Turkish tribe. It is a fact that the Khazar Empire was ruling these Caucasian regions. The resemblance in here could maybe mean that the Circassians and Turks come from the same ethnic origin. At least during the Sakha period, it was a fact that the modern Persian and Caucasian nations lived together with the modern Turkish nation as one Sakha nation. And if we go back further, we will see that the origins of all of them go back to the Sumerians.

Although these subjects are very important, it is very sad to see the fact that the Turkish History Institute and the Turkish Language Institute(with great state budgets) are so busy smarming and cringing around the AKP government, they dont have the time to conduct decently studies and researches about this kind of subject.

And also, among the Azerbaijan Turks, haplogroup F is found with a frequency of %11. And at a study with limited samples, haplogroup F2 is found with a high frequency of %71,4(5/7) among the Lahu tribe of the Sino Tibetians in China. This shows the connection/relation of haplogroup F between East and West Eurasia.

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Zeki Velidi Togan:

The Arpad family that gave an important status to the Magyars, is originated out of the Khazarian Kabar tribe.

Between the 9th and 10th centuries, according to Nemeth Gyula, out of the 9 ruling tribes of the Magyars, 7 were certainly of Turkish ethnic origin: these were the Kabar, Kürt, Gyarmat, Taryan, Yene, Ker and Keszi tribes. Only 2 out of the 9 are of Fin-Ugor origin, these are the Nyek and Megyef tribes.


Among the Proto Turks, F* is found in Hungary during the years between 5800 - 5500 BCE.

Y-DNA Haplogroup G

Among the Madjar tribe of the Kazakh Turks, Y-DNA haplogroup G1a is found with 86,7%. Among the Argin tribe of the Kazakh Turks, Y-DNA haplogroup G1a is found with 65,0%. And also, among the Kazakh Turks in the South-West region of the Altai Republic, Y-DNA haplogroup G2a is found with 6,7% and G1 is found with 10,0%.

Additionally, recently at 7 april 2015, at the the presidency of Oleg Balanovsky, a group of academicians that are Turk haters, published an article of their new study. In here, among 4 Kazakh Turkish tribes and 1 Bashkir Turkish tribe, haplogroup G1 is found with high frequencies. This study shows that as the site turktoresi.com, we were right with our earlier determinations about the Turkish origin of the haplogroup G. In the study that was done, from all Eurasian regions the members of different nations are tested for the Y-DNA G1 marker, and although the fact that out of all of these nations the tribes with the highest frequencies belonged to the Kazakh Turks, in a very twisted way the authors of the article argue that the origin of this haplogroup is of Iranian/Persian origin. However, like it is shown in the same study, the haplogrup G frequency for the 3 groups of Iran does not go higher than %5. So, just not to use the word "Turk", or just not to say "Proto Turk", they use fictive and empty terms like "Indo European" or "Indo Iranian" that do not comply with the scientific logical rules. This shows, that that they are shamelessly and openly performing a hatred against the Turkish history. This, actually just looks like the events that happens at our sports media, and earlier happened during earlier times at our political media, when the false propagandas full with hatred were made intentionally against the Ataturkist Heroes that are called Fenerbahçe and Ergenekonists. The reason of the similarity, is because all these kind of attacks are being planned and implemented by thia CIA, and a little bit by the CIA and old English intelligence agents in Russia and China.

Now, if we should return to the results of this new study, the publishing of these results are of great importance:

-Karkaralinsky Kazakh Turks: 52,8%(94/178),
-Amangeldinsky Kazakh Turks: 25,5%(36/141),
-Akzharsky Kazakh Turks: 55,6%(50/90),
-Magzhan Zhumabaev Kazakh Turks: 25,5%(30/87),
-Bashkir Turks: 12,0%(15/125)

Among the Karachay Turks, the frequency of Y-DNA Haplogroup G2a is 31,9%(22/69). Among the Balkar Turks, the frequency of Y-DNA Haplogroup G2a is 32,6%(44/135). Among the Kumik Turks, the frequency of Y-DNA Haplogroup G2a is 13,7%(10/73). Among the Kuban Nogay Turks, the frequency of Y-DNA Haplogroup G2a is 13,8%(12/87).

Khadizhat Dibirova et al 2009, finds 54%(46/86) of Haplogroup G among the Terek Cossack Turks.

Among the Karai Turks, G2a and G2a3b1 is found with 19,1%(4/21).

Among the Proto Turks, G2a is found in Germany during the years between 5500 - 4900 BCE. At the year 3300 BCE, G2a was found in Italy among our ancestors that is called Ötzi, his body had Proto Turkish stamps.

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Zeki Velidi Togan:

There is a striking full resemblance between the decoration that was found among the Nouin-ula and Pazirik items, and the female crafts decoration of the Turkmens and their neighbours the Aday Kazakh Turks.

We know that how wrong and an irrelevant strain it is to not show the Minusinsk iron and copper objects as Turkish goods, and in stead show them as Iranian goods. The same counts for the origin of the Nouin-ula and Pazirik cultures.

The status of the research of the Anau ruins of today, shows that they belong to the Turkish culture elements. After all these new studies we will see that it is a BIG LIE that the history of Turks consists only of exclusively nomadic culture.


Y-DNA Haplogroup H2(önceden F3-P96)

In the studies conducted to date about modern humans, Haplogroup H2 is almost not founded. Among the Proto Turks, H2 is found in Hungary during the years between 5710 - 4940 BCE.

Y-DNA Haplogroup I

At the country Bosnia and Herzegovina, among the Bosniac Turks, Haplogroup I is found with high frequencies like 53,65% and 70,8%. The subgroups of this haplogroup which were found among the Bosniac Turks are I, I1 and I2a1. In here, we should determinate the important fact, that the the origin of the groups that live in the Jugoslavia lands, like Bosniacs, Croats and Serbians is traced back to the Huns of the Attila period. According to the respected historian S.A. Pletneva, the ancestors of the Bosniacs were the Pechenek Turks whom did settle into the European regions during the Western Hunnish periods. At the article at viewtopic.php?f=42&t=2923, it is proved that the origin of the Serbian and Croatian languages are from the Avar, Pechenek and Kuman Turks that settled into Europe since the Western Hunnish period. And also, if we should think about it logically, during the time that the Hunnish Empire of Attila consisted of all lands between East and West Eurasia, the centre and headquarter of the Huns was located at the Balkans and Hungary. It is not possible that the Hunnish tribes that gathered at these regions are vanished all the sudden, but after a period of time, hundreds of years later, the period of Slavicising was started.

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Traces of Culture and Work Remaining of the Hun, Avar, Bulgar, Oghuz, Pechenek and Kuman Turks

Orta Asya'da, Karadeniz'in kuzeyinde, Orta Avrupa'da ve Balkan Yarımadası'nda devletler kuran eski Türk boylarının etkisi, söz konusu devletlerde yaşayan başka milletlerin dillerinin ve edebiyatlarının dışında onların inançlarında, folklor ve folklor müziğinde, mimarilerinde, sanatlarında, zanaatlarında, kullandıkları silâhlarda, savaş taktiği ve tekniğinde, tarımda, ticarette, ulaşımda, madencilikte ve maden işletmeciliğinde, şehircilikte, toprak sulama sistemlerinde, başka bir deyişle sosyo-ekonomik ve kültürel hayatlarının her kesiminde, hatta şuurlarında bile görülmekte ve hissedilmektedir.

Osmanlı öncesinden kalan Türk eser ve izlerinin büyük çoğunluğu, söz konusu Türk boylarının askeri üssü, idare ve kültür merkezi olan Panonya Düzlüğü'nde bulunmuştur. Bu bölgede yapılan arkeolojik kazılarla yüzlerce mezarlık, kale, kule, hisar, Tuna ve Tisa Irmağı arasında sulama kanalları vb. eserler zamanımıza kadar ayakta kalmayı başarmıştır. Bu eserlerin bir kısmı Sırbistan'ın Voyvodina Bölgesi'nde yapılan kazılarda bulunmuştur. Kazılarda çok değerli silâhlar, ziynet eşyası, el yazmaları vb. eserlere rastlanmıştır. Bu eserler, adı geçen Türk boylarının çok yüksek medeniyete sahip olduklarını, Avrupa ve Balkan Yarımadası'nda yaşayan milletlerin sosyal, ekonomik ve kültürel hayatlarının her kesiminde yeni çığır açtıklarını kanıtlamaktadır. Bundan başka, söz konusu Türk boyları, Avrupa ve Balkan Yarımadası'nın etnik yapısını, olayların ve tarih akışının yönünü değiştirdiler.


S.A. Pletneva:

Bosnians (Slav. “Pecheneges“)

At the end of the 9th century the Khazarian Kaganate, torn apart by internal problems and religious upheaval, lost its recent absolute power, its glory of invincible power won by rivers of blood. The neighboring peoples begun to agitate, one after another began leaving the tribes and the tribal unions of the Khazar confederation who used to pay a tribute to the Kagan.

In the Eastern European steppes at that time (ca. 880-890) formed a new nomadic union, Badjanaks (in the Latin and Byzantine literature they were called Patsinaks or Pachinaks, in the Arabian literature they were called Badjnak (بآجانآك Bechenek)).

In fact, the Latin sources called them Becens/Besenyos, which was close to their self appellation that came to our days in its Middle Age form, Bosnia/Bosnians.

It was headed by the descendents of the political union Kangüy (Kangar). The new association received a new name.

S.A.Pletneva glosses over a monumental ethnos, documented, unlike any other in the history of the humankind, over five and a half millennia in the space from the lake Balkhash to the Persian Gulf. The name of the ethnos is Kangar, attested in the Sumerian records in the Near East interfluvial, and in the Chinese records west of the Altai foothills. Besenyos were related to the Kangar people, hence their exoethnonym, “in-laws“, that came to be their adopted ethnonym “Bajanaks“. In the Kangar confederation the autonomous Besenyos had their own Khans, and we were fortunate to learn of their ruling clan and the names of some individual rulers from that clan.


In a study with a limited sample size, at the country Tatarstan, the Tatar Turks had 40,0%(2/5) of Haplogroup I. The subgroups that were found are I1 and I2a1.

At the North-West region of China, among the Tatar Turks, in a study with a serious sample size, Haplogroup I was found with a high frequency of 33,3%(11/33). There is a large distance difference between China and East European Tatarstan. Nevertheless, the fact that Haplogroup I is found with similar high frequencies shows that Haplogroup I is found in the majority of specific groups of the Tatar Turks.

Among the Kazan Tatar Turks Haplogroup I is found with 13,2%(7/53). Among the Tuzmazinsky Tatar Turks Haplogroup I is found with 12,0%(6/50).

Among the Gagauz Turks Haplogroup I1+I2a is found with 31,3%(15/48) and I* is found with 32.7%(16/49).

Among the Proto Turks of the Yamnaya Culture, I2a is found in Russia during the Bronze Age.

Among the Proto Turks, for example in Hungary, during the years between 5210 - 4940 BCE, I1 is found and during the years between 4490 - 4360 BCE I2a is found.

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Y-DNA Haplogroup J

At the Daghestan region, among the Avar Turks, Haplogrup J is found with 72%(30/42) and 94,0%(17/18) frequencies. The subgroups belong to J1, J2 and J2b. The fact that among such a deep rooted Turkish tribe like the Avars is found the Europoid haplogroup J with such high frequencies, means that during future ancient dna studies about Huns and Gök Türks, different Europoid haplogroups could be found. In Xinjiang, among the Uygur Turks Haplogrup J2 is found with 34%, in the same region among the Uzbek Turks Haplogrup J and J2 is found with 34,8%. Among the Azerbaijan Turks in Azerbaijan, Haplogroup J is found with a percentage of 57,9%(11/19). Among the Uzbek Turks in the Balkh region of Afghanisthan, Haplogroup J2 is found with a percentage of 60,0%(3/5). This shows that, from West to East Eurasian regions, this haplogroup is found in specific Turkish tribes within the majority.

Among the Kumik Turks, the total frequency of Y-DNA Haplogroup J1+J2 is 42,5%(31/73). Among the Kuban Nogay Turks, the total frequency of Y-DNA Haplogroup J1+J2 is 37,9%(33/87). Among the Balkar Turks, the total frequency of Y-DNA Haplogroup J1+J2 is 19,3%(26/135). Among the Karachay Turks, the total frequency of Y-DNA Haplogroup J1+J2 is 18,9%(13/69).

At the Khusnutdinova et al 2008 study, among a group of Kazakh Turks, the Y-DNA Haplogroup J is found with a frequency of 18%, at the same study haplogroup C is found with a similar frequency(25%) and Khusnutdinova comments the following statement about these two findings: "in relatively high frequencies".

Bertoncini 2012 et al finds 90%(13/15) of Haplogroup J1+J2 among the Avar Turks of Daghestan.

Since the Selcukids, Iran is uninterruptedly managed by Turk royal families and tribes. Before this, during the Hun and Sakha periods, this region was again dominated or had an impact by Turks. The Qajar royal family managed Iran from the 18th century until the year 1925. The descendants of the founder of the Qajar royal family, the grandsons of Mohammad Khan Qajar and Fath-Ali Shah Qajar were tested for Y-DNA, their haplogroup was J1. The fact that J1 is found among such a deep-rooted Turk tribe, means that this haplogroup is associated with the Proto Turks.

Among the Karai Turks, J1 and J2 is found with 47,6%(10/21).

Among the Chuvash Turks J is found with 15,9%(7/44).

Among the Kazan Tatar Turks Haplogroup J is found with 15,1%(8/53). Among the Tuzmazinsky Tatar Turks Haplogroup J is found with 10,0%(5/50).

Between the years 1000 BCE - 889 AD, among the ancient Sakha and/or Hun and/or Gök Türks from the Altai Republic region, the Y-DNA haplogroup J2 is found.

Among the Proto Turks, in Hungary, during the years between 1270 - 1100 BCE, J2a is found.

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Zeki Velidi Togan:

Close to the year 560 AD, the Avars came to the regions near the Black Sea, after a while they moved their headquarters to the Tissa river region in Hungary. During the time of the Byzantine emperor Justinianos I, the Avars battled with the Byzantines. The Avars are known before Gök Türks to rule Central Central Asia as being a part of the Cucen's.

The Avars were following the Gök Türk state organization and came into the borders between the Gök Türks and the Byzantines. Because of the Avars, the Gök Türks made diplomatic relationships with the Byszantines.

If we should mention the Iranian rumours about the ancient Turks, we know that Asadî Tûsîde said that the ruling tribes were the Yugur's. The location of this ancient Turkish world state, is were the Uygurs and their centre in the Central Tienshan regions are, and their rules is calles "Khaqan-i Yugur".

Other Iranian narrators like Abu Mansur al-Balkhî, Daqîqî, Firdevsî, says that the essentially dominant factor of a Turkish state is the Chigil and the Kharlukh(Khallukh, Karlik). Their centre is located at the Issik-Köl region, near the Koçunkarbaşı and Zerefşan, at the Ruyîn-Dîz (Bakır castle, Beykend) and Ordukent (Kashgar) cities. And the ruler of this state is called Afrasiab(Tunga Alp). When Afrasiab became victorious at the war against the Iranians, they settled in the region near Siistan, Hamun Lake and Inner Iran. After they were defeated, they were forced to migrate to the Kemâk country, so to the Altaian Mountain regions were is called "Derya-i Kimak". They also fleed to the Lake(Koso-Göl, or Baikal) behind and at the east of the Altai Mountains, and also went to the city named "Ruyîn Dîz" that was located in the Orkhun Valley. Finally when he comes to the West region of the country in Azerbaijan, there he is being killed by the Iranians.


Y-DNA Haplogroup K*

Among the Proto Turks, in the Xiaohe region of Xinjiang, during the years between 2000 - 1500 BCE, K* is found.

Y-DNA Haplogroup L

In Türkiye, among the Avshar Turks(Oghuz Tribe), Haplogrup L is found with a frequency of 56,7%.

Among the Kyrgyz Turks of Xinjiang, Haplogroup L is found with a frequency of 25,0%.

Among the Uygur Turks of Xinjiang, Haplogroup L is found with a frequency of 12,5%.

Among the Avar Turks of Daghestan, Haplogrup L is found with a frequency of 9,52%.

At the Middle Age Turks, for example in China, Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar and his grandson Zheng He(Haji Mahmud Shams) belonged to L1a during the years between 1400 - 1500 AD.

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Faruk Sümer:

Beginning from the 11th century, the Avshars played an important role, and continued their name until today, they are a tribe of Oghuz Khan. In the source of Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, the Avshars are being shown as an Oghuz tribe that created a ruler in the history. Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, says that the Avshars, also were the strongest Oghuz tribe during the times before the Oghuz Turks became Muslims.


Y-DNA Haplogroup R

At the Altai Republic, among the Altai Turks, Haplogroup R is found with a frequency of 44,1%. The subgroup R1a1 is found with 40,7%.

In Turkmenistan, among the Turkmen Turks, Haplogroup R1a is found with a frequency of 72,6%.

In Bashkortostan, among the Bashkir Turk tribes, the highest frequency of Haplogrup R1b1a is 86,0%.

At the Khusnutdinova et al 2008 study, among a group of Bashkir Turks Y-DNA Haplogroup R1b3 is found with 82%, other Kyrgyz and Altaic Turk groups have R1b3 with higher than %50, and Khusnutdinova groups these R1b3 found in the Bashkir, Kyrgyz and Altai Turks with the results of the Turks in Türkiye: "R1b3 is not specific to Europe".

Among the Proto Turks of the Yamnaya Culture, R1b is found in Russia during the Bronze Age.

Among the Proto Turks, for example in the Samara region of Russia, during the years between 5650 - 5555 BCE, R1b1a is found. Among the Sakha Turks, for example in the Sebÿstei region of the Altai Republic, at the year 500 BCE, R1a1a is found. Among the Hun Turks, for example in the Duurlig Nars region of North-East Mongolia, during the years between 300 BCE - 100 AD, R1a1 is found.

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Zeki Velidi Togan:

The fact that the Bayandir tribe of the Kimaks were also part of the Khans, is understood out of the saga's of them among the Oghuz group. Their actual centre is located at the Irthish and Altai mountains. The homes of the Kimaks were at the south Sirderya region near Sabran until the West of the Ak-Edil river. The Bashkirs were also considered a tribe of them.


Y-DNA Haplogroup T

In the Altai Republic, among the Kazakh Turks, Haplogroup K*(xL, N, O, P) is found with a frequency of 38,8%.

At another study about the Kazakh Turks in the Altai Republic, it was determined that all found K* results belonged to the T1a haplogroup. Also, at the study with the 38,8% frequency of T1a, the fact that among the same Kazakh tribe group, the Europoid(West Eurasian/The Eurasian regions that are located at the West of Mongolia) haplogroups like J2 and R1a1 are found with 2x 6,1% frequencies shows that these K*(xL, N, O, P) results should belong to T1a. According to anthropolog Orazak Ismagülov, during the Gök Türk period, in Kazakhstan the skull types belonged to 50% - 50% Europoid - Mongoloid. The same structure is also found in the previous genetic study. The frequency of C3c by itself is approximately the same as the frequency of T1a(there is one more person with C3c, which makes the frequency of C3c 40,8%). And the frequencies of other Mongoloid(East Eurasian/The Eurasian regions that are located at the East of Mongolia) haplogroups like D* and N* are found with 2x 4,1% frequencies. In total the Mongoloid(C3c, D*, N*) frequency among this Kazakh Turk tribe in the Altai Republic is 49%. The total of the Europoid(J2, R1a1, T1a) frequency is 51%.

Among the Kazakh Turks from China, Haplogroup K*(xN,O,P) is found with a frequency of 2.4%(1/41).
Among the Kazakh Turks from Kazakhstan, Haplogroup T is found with a frequency of 1.1%(1/95).

Among the Chuvash Turks, haplogroup K*(xL,N,O1,O3c,P) is found with a frequency of 17.7%(3/17).

Among the Tuva Turks from China, haplogroup K*(xN1c1, O*, P*) is found with a frequency of 59.0%(30/51), 52.0%(27/51) and 15.0%(7/48).
Among the Tuva Turks, haplogroup K*(xN1*, O*, P*) is found with a frequency of 8.9%(10/113) and 13.9%(5/36).
Among the Tuva Turks, haplogroup K*(xL,N,O,P) is found with a frequency of 9.8%(10/102).

Among the Yugur Turks, haplogroup K*(xL,N,O1,O3c,P) is found with a frequency of 48.2%(27/56).
Among the Yugur Turks from China, haplogroup K*(xN,O,P) is found with a frequency of 6.3%(2/32).

Among the Gagauz Turks, haplogroup T is found with a frequency of 6.3%(3/48).

Among the Avar Turks, haplogroup T is found with a frequency of 4.8%(2/42).

Among the Uzbek Turks from China, haplogroup K*(xN,O,P) is found with a frequency of 26.1%(6/23).
Among the Uzbek Turks from Afghanistan, haplogroup T is found with a frequency of 3.6%(1/28).

Among the Azerbaijan Turks from Iran, haplogroup T is found with a frequency of 7,9%(5/63).
Among the Azerbaijan Turks, haplogroup K*(xL,N,O1,O3c,P) is found with a frequency of 10,3%(3/29).

Among the Uygur Turks, haplogroup K*(xN,O,P) is found with a frequency of 18.0%(9/50) and 12.8%(5/39).
Among the Uygur Turks, haplogroup T is found with a frequency of 2.1%(1/48).

Among the Quechua tribe of the Natives of Peru, haplogroup T is found with a frequency of 27,3%(3/11). Among the Quechua tribe of the Natives of Bolivia, haplogroup T is found with a frequency of 1,8%(1/55).

Among the Xibo tribe whom speak an Altaic language, haplogroup T is found with a frequency of 12,5%(1/8).
Among the Xibo tribe whom speak an Altaic language, haplogroup K*(xN,O,P) is found with a frequency of 9.4%(3/32) and 4.9%(2/41).

The fact that the Mongoloid Haplogroup C1/C6 is found among the Proto Turk culture Linear Bandkeramik(Band Pottery) in the European countries together with the Europoid haplogroups like G2a, R1b and T1a, shows that the same genetic structure of nowadays Kazakh Turks is also found among the Proto Turks. The fact that these Linear Bandkeramik(Band Pottery) culture and the advanced types that are occured out of it in the European regions belonged to the Proto Turk culture, is proven by another fact that shows that the body of Ötzi that was found in Italy had Proto Turkish Stamps. Also, these cultures that are formed in the European regions are in the same period as the Sumerians, and all these are also considered the ancestors of the cultures(like Andronovo) that are formed after a couple of thousands of years in the Central Asian regions which will in later periods form the basis fundamental roots of the Sakha and Hun Turks. The origins of the Sumerians, and all these cultures that were formed in Europe are located at the Cental Asian and Altai Mountain regions during the Neotlithic and earlier Ages.

For detailed information about Haplogroup T you can visit our page at: viewtopic.php?f=87&t=12277

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Because of the continuous change of the location of Y-DNA haplogroup T1a in the Y-DNA tree, the majority of the academicians did not test this haplogroup since the year 2000 , thats why we should not forget the probability that the K* results in many studies can belong to T1a. Another example, is the fact that the haplogroup K*(xN1c, O, P) is found among the Tuva Turks in Xinjiang with a frequency of %52 and %59. Lets analyze the other studies done about the Tuva Turks. In here lets take the highest %59 frequency of K*(xN1c, O, P). In other studies, for example, the highest frequency of N1-LLY22g is 14,2% and the highest frequency of N-P43 is 27,3%. The total of these is 41,5%. If we consider that 41,5% of the %59 K*(xN1c, O, P) result belongs to the haplogroup N and the subgroups of N, a probability of %17,5 is left for the frequencies of haplogroup T1a or L. At a final study about the Tuva tribe, the frequency of K*(xL, N, O, P) was %9,8. This shows that T1a and/or L should be found with the frequencies %9,8 and 8,3%. But knowing the fact that Haplogroup L has been tested in a lot of the previous studies about the Tuva Turks, we can also assume that the frequency of T1a among the Tuva Turks can go higher than %9,8, like %17,5.

All these important examples and frequencies, show us that the haplogroups L and T could be found among the majority of specific groups of Turkish tribes that live near the Altai Mountain and South Siberian regions. The analysis which me made here about the problematic K* example of the Tuva tribe, is also seen in the studies done about the Yugur and Chuvash tribes.

Among the Proto Turks, in the Germany region, at a Linear Bandkeramik(Band Pottery) grave, during the years between 5500 - 4800 BCE, T1a is found.
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