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Doğu'da Türk ve Müslüman Soykırım Sayıları

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Doğu'da Türk ve Müslüman Soykırım Sayıları

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 30 Nis 2011, 16:34

MUSLIM MORTALITY IN THE EAST

No one counted the dead of the wars in the Caucasus and eastern Anatolia. To estimate their numbers one can only list the differences between the populations of the east before and after the wars. The result is not strictly "war deaths," because births and natural deaths (i.e., deaths that would normally have occurred without war) are included in the figures. Nevertheless, one can assume that births and natural deaths roughly balanced each other out, leaving a fairly accurate estimate of wartime mortality. (Deaths of Muslim soldiers who were native to those areas and thus entered in the population registers are necessarily included in the figures.) More serious complications arise from the effects of migration. The exodus of Muslim refugees from the Caucasus added to the postwar population of Erzurum Vilâyeti by as much as 10,000, for example. There is some evidence of Kurdish migrations into Van, Bitlis, and Erzurum, somewhat replacing the Armenians gone from those provinces. These migrations artificially lowered the number of wartime deaths listed in Table 21. Because the figures in Table 21 are in fact the result of subtracting the population in 1922 from the population in 1912, the inclusion of immigrants in the 1922 figures makes it appear as if there were fewer Muslim deaths than there were. The problem is particularly acute for Trabzon Vilâyeti and, to a lesser extent, for Adana Vilâyeti. The Trabzon region was and is one of the most salubrious and economically important in Anatolia. It would be extremely unlikely that Turks from other areas of Anatolia did not migrate to Trabzon, Rize, and Samsun to take the place of the dead. 228 The mortality for Trabzon, therefore, must have been considerably greater than indicated in the table. The figures in Table 21, then, are actually undercounts of Muslim mortality in the east. Despite that, the catastrophic results of the Muslim-Armenian War speak for themselves: 62 percent of the Muslims of Van Vilâyeti lost, 42 percent of the Muslims of Bitlis, 31 percent of Erzurum.

TABLE 21. MUSLIM POPULATION LOSS IN THE OTTOMAN EASTERN PROVINCES, 1912-22.

ProvincePopulation LossPercentage Lost
Van194,1670.62
Bitlis169,2480.42
Erzurum248,6950.31
Diyarbakir158,0430.26
Mamuretülaziz89,3100.16
Sivas186,4130.15
Haleb*50,8380.09
Adana42,5110.07
Trabzon49,9070.04

* The portion that remained in the Turkish Rzepublic. SOURCE: McCarthy, Muslims and Minorities.

TABLE 22. TURKISH AND MUSLIM POPULATION LOSS IN THE TRANSCAUCASIAN REGION.*

Turks Muslims
Population in 19142,171,0002,743,000
Population in 19211,844,0002,330,000

* Baku, Elizavetpol, Kutais, Tiflis, Kars, and Erivan Russian provinces.
† Extrapolation from figures for Turks.
SOURCES: Russian and U.S.S.R. Statistics.


Muslim losses in the Caucasus, in which there was less actual warfare, were not as great as those in eastern Anatolia. Yet the mortality was surely significant -- 15 percent of the southern Caucasian Muslims were dead. In some areas, especially Kars, Erivan, Baku City, and western Azerbaijan, the mortality must have been much greater, but the type of statistics available makes it impossible to identify Muslim losses by provinces and districts. As in Anatolia, migration considerably clouds the picture.

The precise numbers of Muslim dead are not in themselves important; their importance lies in their depiction of the enormity of the Muslim loss in the east. In the provinces in which the war was primarily fought -- Van, Bitlis, and Erzurum -- at least 40 percent of the Muslims were dead at war's end. The depth and breadth of the suffering that such figures imply is beyond comprehension. The death rate is well beyond that of most of the great disasters in world history, such as the Thirty Years' War and the Black Death. Of course, Muslims were not the only ones to die. The Armenian death rate was at least as great, and Armenian losses cannot be ignored. But the world has long known of the suffering of the Armenians. It is time for the world to also consider the suffering of the Muslims of the east and the horror that it was. Like the Armenians, Muslims were massacred or died from starvation and disease in stupefying numbers. Like the Armenians, their deaths deserve remembrance.

Kaynakça
Kitap: Death and Exile: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821-1922
Yazar: Justin McCarthy
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TurkmenCopur
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