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The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Burada Haplogroup T'nin Türkiye-Türkistan Karşılaştırması yapılıyor ve haplogrubun Türk Kökeni kanıtlanıyor.

Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 08 May 2015, 01:42

The life and times of Zheng He (Hajji Mahmud), Admiral of the Chinese Navy of the Ming Emperor Yung-Lo of China

March 21, 2007, 2:07 pm

by Kenneth T. Tellis


This is the story of Chinese Admiral Zheng He (or his Chinese title of Cheng Ho), his birth name being Ma Sanbao, and his Muslim name of Hajji Mahmud, who traveled the China Seas, the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea, long before the time of the European explorers and colonizers.

Hajji Mahmud was born in 1371 in Kunyang (now Jinning) in the province of Yunan, in southwest China, near Laos. His background was ethnic Hui; the Hui people were Chinese Muslims of Mongol-Turkic background. The name he was given at birth was Ma Sanbao, though he was still raised a Muslim. In the year 1382, the army of the 1st Ming Emperor Hung Wu was sent to expel the Mongol people from that region. The army conquered Yunnan, and killed off, or tortured most of the Mongol-Turkic Hui people. Zheng He became their prisoner at age 11, and was also tortured by them, but survived the ordeal. In 1385, three years after his capture, he was chosen for service at the Ming Court, and as was the custom of the time he was castrated. As part of his duties Zheng He was assigned to serve prince Zhu Di, who soon began to trust him. Zheng He helped the prince in a bloody three-year-struggle for succession. In this time he served his master, prince Zhu Di well, and did many brave deeds during the battle of Zhenggluba, near Beijing, thus he earned the name Zheng He. When Zhu Di became Yung-lo the 3rd Ming Emperor of China, and Zheng He became his chief advisor.

Admiral Zheng He was outfitted with a fleet of 70 ships and some 30,000 men, which he used in his voyages of exploration, discovery, trade and diplomacy. His many sea voyages took him to Sumatra, Java, Serendeep, Malacca, (Ceylon), Hindustan (India), Persia (Iran), Arabia, the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea, Egypt, Moçambique, and other parts of Africa, and the island kingdom of Madagascar. He brought the envoys of 30 kingdoms, including King Alagonakkara of Serendeep (Ceylon), to the Ming Court to pay homage to Yung-lo 3rd Emperor of the Ming Dynasty.

On one of his many voyages, Admiral Zheng He landed on the island kingdom of Madagascar and presented the king a brass cannon as a token of amity from the Ming Emperor Yung-lo. The story goes that a western tourist, who was an amateur archaeologist was on holiday in Republika Malagasy (Madagascar). One day while he was passing by a house on his way to a beach, when he noticed an odd gatepost on the entrance to a house. He then went up to the post and noticed that it was made of brass. It was covered with patina and, the he continued on his way to the beach for a swim. The very next day, the tourist went to same house where the brass cannon was being used as a post for the gateway and approached the owner. He enquired if the owner would sell him the gateway fixture? The owner not being wealthy haggled with the tourist and finally sold him the fixture. The tourist cleaned out the patina on the old brass cannon and found that the inscriptions on it were in Chinese. That it turned out was the brass cannon that Zheng He had presented to the King of Madagascar, in the name of the Ming Emperor Yung-lo of China.

Admiral Zheng He also visited Serendeep (Ceylon). A carved stone tablet was discovered in 1911 on a culvert on Cripps Road in Galle. H.F. Tomalin, a highway-planning engineer, found it and the trilingual inscriptions on it was deciphered with some difficulty.

The tablet dated back to 1411, it commemorated the second visit to Serendeep (Ceylon) by Admiral Zheng He. He had commanded seven voyages in the China Seas and the Indian Ocean between 1405 and 1433.

In his first voyage to Serendeep in 1406, Admiral Zheng He met with unfriendly local rulers, and cut short his expedition. His fleet then sailed on to Calicut, Hindustan, where it is said that he was impressed by the honesty and business acumen of its traders.

Admiral Zheng He’s next expedition took him to Siam. On his third expedition from China in 1409, Zheng He carried a triangular tablet, which he intended to erect in Serendeep. The date on the tablet corresponds to February 15, 1409; it was inscribed in Nanjing, China, before the fleet left. The Chinese portion of the tablet praises Lord Buddha, and Buddhism. The tablet’s Sinhalese portion offers praise to the god Tenevarai-Nayanar (Shiva), and the Arabic portion offered similar tributes to Allah.

The China of Ma Sinbao (Zheng He) was a very tolerant place. The various religions tolerated each other and there was openness to all faiths. Thus, fanatical Muslim bigots that abound in today’s Islamic world did not influence Ma Sinbao’s life as a Muslim. Actually Zheng He or as he was know in Arabic, Hajji Mahmud saw nothing wrong in offering gifts to Buddhist Temples, Hindu Mandhirs and other places of worship, that were not Muslim. Perhaps, this should be a lesson to the Muslims of today. Because, if Muslims today use Zheng He as an example of tolerance, it would go a long way to helping them come to terms with the fanatics that have taken hold of their religion. Zheng He was an example of Muslim tolerance, in an area that comprised of all the religions of South East Asia and parts of the Middle East. But, as we see Zheng He, was raised in China, a country where religious tolerance was an accepted fact. Thus, there was no place for Islamic fundamentalism to feed hatred against non-Muslims. That was a plus for South East Asia, in a time of turmoil, everywhere else in the world. We can all learn from that era, how to accept the religions of others, without any preconceived ideas, and treat every religion with respect.

http://netwmd.com/blog/2007/03/21/1486
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Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 08 May 2015, 01:46

Imperial China 900-1800
Frederick W. Mote


https://books.google.by/books?id=SQWW7QgUH4gC

"The most unusual among the latter is the sinified Turkic Muslim eunuch Admiral Zheng He, who commanded Cheng-zu's great fleets on voyages into the Indian Ocean throughout much of the Yongle reign."
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Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 08 May 2015, 01:51

The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty
Shih-shan Henry Tsai


https://books.google.by/books?id=Ka6jNJcX_ygC

"In fact, the family was apparently quite affluent, because Zheng He's grandfather was also a Haji and held high office in Yunnan. Based on what the Chinese records can tell us, his ancestors came originally from presentday Xinjiang, even possibly from Central Asia. In China's vast western region, there were a variety of ethnic groups, ranging from the more numerous Mongols, Uygurs, and Kazaks to the minority groups of Kirghizes, Uzbeks, and Tajiks, most of whom spoke the Turkic language and used Arab script for centuries."
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Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 08 May 2015, 01:55

During his career as a naval commander, Zheng He negotiated trade pacts, fought pirates, installed puppet kings, and brought back tribute for the Yongle Emperor in the form of jewels, medicines and exotic animals, among other things. He and his crew travelled and traded with not only with the city-states of what is now Indonesia and Malaysia, with Siam and India, but even with the Arabian ports of modern-day Yemen and Saudi Arabia, and as far as Somalia and Kenya.

http://asianhistory.about.com/od/china/ ... he_bio.htm
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Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 08 May 2015, 01:57

Zheng He and his crew received a warm welcome wherever they voyaged. Zheng was addressed respectfully as Sanbao (Zheng He’s original name is Ma Sanbao). Some countries and places Zheng He visited have retained various momentos and legendary tales of his exploits. An example is the Sanbao Temple in Thailand, Sanbao Caves in Indonesia, Zheng He’s statue in India and Zheng He villages in Somalia and Kenya.

http://www.bjreview.cn/EN/En-2005/05-28-e/china-2.htm
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Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 08 May 2015, 02:04

viewtopic.php?f=229&t=12267

Begmyrat Gerey:

A couple of Sumerologs, said that the Sumerian language was present in india before the Aryans were here and their language was of the Ural-Altai type like the language of the DRAVIDA's which caused for them to conclude that the Sumerians came from the South of Iran to Mezopotamia.


Orazak Ismagulov:

Anthropological and Archaeological Determinations about the Hun Turks

Usuns, a kindred of Ku-Süns (Kushans), migrated to Jeti-Su under a pressure from Huns (Süns), numbering about 100,000 families. In the Jeti-Su they took overlordship over existing Kangar and Pamirian populations, establishing a fairly stable commonwealth with combined population of about 600,000. The Türkic Kangars, themselves a heterogeneous conglomerate of Türkic tribes, and the Türkic Usuns re-distributed pastures, and continued their similar, but not identical kurgan burial traditions that left for us monuments to study. Not much difference can be detected anthropologically when the kindred Kangars and Usuns blended, each one bringing into the union the traces of their specific admixtures. A third component of the Usun society are the Pamir aboriginals, who brought into the blend Iberian-type admixture.

U-sün: The name of a tribe of the Hunnish Turks. Sün = Hun, then "U-Sün" could mean White Hun
Kangar: The name of a tribe of the Hunnish Turks. The name Kangar(Kenger) was also the name of which the Sumerians called theirselves.
Pamir aboriginals: It is generally an accepted fact in the academic world that the Dravidian and Turkish languages contain very similar elements. In this period the Pamir Mountains is again full with Dravidians of Turkish ethnic origin.
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Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 15 May 2015, 02:53

Anthropological and historical sources show us that the root of the Huns, are the Huns that are located at West Eurasian regions(including West Mongolia until the Balkan regions). Even though, Egyin Gol that is located at the North Mongolian region, the Y-STR haplotype with number 76, could belong to either T1a or R1b. However the statistics of marker YCAII-a/b show that the majority of haplotypes with YCAII value "23-23" belongs to haplogroup T1a.

Resim

Resim

Using the database of FT-DNA, comparing the 5 markers(YCAII-a-b, DYS19, DYS392, DYS393), the following matches are determined:

T: TOTAL: 27/649 MATCHES(4,16%)
R1b: TOTAL: 21/5650 MATCHES(0,37%)
R1a: TOTAL: 0/3150 MATCHES
C: TOTAL: 0/280 MATCHES
Q: TOTAL: 0/1000 MATCHES
J2: TOTAL: 0/2500 MATCHES

https://www.familytreedna.com/public/Y- ... n=yresults
https://www.familytreedna.com/public/r1 ... n=yresults
https://www.familytreedna.com/public/r1 ... ycolorized

Using the database of FT-DNA, analyzing the MT-DNA combinations that occur with Y-DNA haplogroup T, the MTDNA haplogroups H and U are found with the highest numbers:

H: 42
U: 24
T: 15
K: 15
J: 12
HV: 11
N: 10

Resim

Using the database of FT-DNA, looking for YCAII 23-23 matches, the following statistics are determined:

C: 4x
D: 0x
E: 0X
F: 0X
G: 0X
H: 0X
I: 0X
J2: 5X
L: 0X
N: 0X
O: 0X
Q1a: 3X
R1b: 81/13650 = 0,56%
R*: 0x
R1a: 17/3150 = 0,54%
T: 132/649 = 20,34%

At the study named "Afghan Hindu Kush: Where Eurasian Sub-Continent Gene Flows Converge", Y-STR haplotypes of the "Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Turkmen, Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Pakistani" populations were studied.

Looking for YCAII 23-23 matches, the following statistics are determined:

O3: 1/51 2%
Q1: 1/68 1,5%
R: 1/401 0,25%
R1a: 1/278 0,36%
R1b: 0/75 0%
R2: 0/43 0%
R: 0/3 0%
T: 2/12 16,7%

4 Y-STR haplotypes of the Keyser et al 2003 study, were later tested in a 2006 study for Y-SNP. We used the With Athey haplogroup predictor to see which methods did bring the right results that matched the later Y-SNP results in 2006. The analysis ended with a conclusion that the prediction with With Athey haplogroup predictor, using the "SOUTH-ASIA AREA SELECTION", predicted the right results for the Xiongnu samples.

Resim

At the study Derenko et al 2006, a total of 255 samples belonging to R1a1 haplogroup were available. There were 0/255 matches for: DYS19=14 and DYS392=13

Resim

Kim et al 2010, tells that according to their analysis, the Autosomal haplotype of the R1a result found among the Xiongnu grave in Duurlig Nars at Northeast Mongolia, is close to populations in India/South Asia. This information is parallel with the fact the "SOUTH-ASIA AREA SELECTION" being more accurate during the use of the With Athey predictor.

Autosomal DNA can also be used as evidence of population origin using the principle that the likelihood is greater for a population in which the alleles of a profile are more common (Brenner, 2006). Calculation by DNA VIEW shows that the autosomal profile of MNX3 West Eurasian male is 14 times more probable from a Brahmin Indian than from a modern Caucasian (Table 6).
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Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 15 May 2015, 17:07

Xue et. al. 2006 finds 3.2%(1/31) of haplogroup K*(xN,O,P) among the Oroqen tribe.

Xue et. al. 2006 finds 2.9%(1/35) of haplogroup K*(xN,O,P) among the Manchu tribe.

Xue et. al. 2006 finds 4.4%(2/45) of haplogroup K*(xN,O,P) among the Inner Mongolian tribe.

Xue et. al. 2006 finds 1.5%(1/65) of haplogroup K*(xN,O,P) among the Outer Mongolian tribe.

Xue et. al. 2006 finds 3.9%(1/26) of haplogroup K*(xN,O,P) among the Evenk tribe.

Resim

Shou et. al. 2010 finds 4.0%(2/50) of haplogroup K*(xN,O,P) among the Mongolian tribe in China.

Resim
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Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 16 May 2015, 14:56

Zhong et. al. 2010 finds 2.1%(1/48) of haplogroup T among a tribe of the Uygur Turks.

Resim

Xue et. al. 2006 finds 12.8%(5/39) of haplogroup K*(xN,O,P) among a Yili tribe of the Uygur Turks.

Resim

Shou et. al. 2010 finds 18.0%(9/50) of haplogroup K*(xN,O,P) among the Uygur Turks.

Resim
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Re: The Origin of Y-DNA Haplogroup T

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 16 May 2015, 18:30

Black et. al. 2006 finds 10.9%(5/41) of haplogroup K*(xN,O,P) among the Dongxiang Mongol tribe.

Resim

The haplogroup L results at Xu et. al. 2017(The Silk Road: Language and Population Admixture and Replacement), among the Dongxiang population:

-L: 0,93%

Conclusion: In total the frequency of Haplogroup L is 0,93%. If we compare this with the Yang et. al. 2008 results, with 10.9%(5/41) of haplogroup K*(xN,O,P), we get 10,0% of possible Y-DNA Haplogroup T. Very notable is also the 16,82% of Western Eurasian Y-DNA Haplogroup J-M304 among the Dongxiang.

Resim
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