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Ruslara Göre Doğu Türkistan'ın Çin işgaline Uğraması

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Ruslara Göre Doğu Türkistan'ın Çin işgaline Uğraması

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 20 Ara 2010, 17:30

Ruslara Göre Doğu Türkistan'ın Çin işgaline Uğraması



From the Turkestan Gazette, No. 5, 31st January (12th March) 1878

Consequent on the Tungan rebellion in the 6th decade of this century, which detached the Western Mussulman provinces from the Celestial Empire, the Chinese lost their power and influence in those countries, but they did not wholly despair of regaining possession of them. They determined to act in their own peculiar manner, slowly, methodically, and with foresight, and in the end they were perfectly sucessful.

In the year 1874 they took Suchow by assault, after which they established themselves in Hami and Barkul, and in 1875 they occupied Manass and Urumtsi. In the beginning of last year they had already taken up positions along the entire line of our frontier skirting Kuldja and Western Siberia from Chuguchak, Shikho and Jinho to the northern spurs of the Thian Shan. They were kept in check only by Kuldja, which was temporarily occupied by the Russians in 1871, and by Kashgar (Djetyshahr) which was under the strong hand of Yakub Bek.

Yakub Bek, the Badaulet of Kashgar, well knew that sooner or later he would have to measure his strength with the Chinese, and that the struggle would be obstinate and protracted. He therefore occupied himself during the whole period of his rule in preparing himself for war. Safeguarding himself on the side of the Turkestan province by means of a friendly commercial treaty and of a series of fortifications on his northern and western frontiers, Yakub Bek aided by the English, laboured to organize a strong and well, armed force. For this purpose he engaged several military instructors from Turkey and Afghanistan. When the Chinese took Hami and Barkul, Yakub Bek withdrew his troops from Manass and Urumtsi, recognizing the impossibility of keeping those remote towns. The Kashgar forces were concentrated beyond the Thian Shan, in the eastern extremity of Djetyshahr, where they awaited an attack by the Chinese. Yakub Bek resided alternately at Aksu, Kurle, and Toksun. Even the frontier fort of Devanchi, the pass occurring on the road from Urumtsi to Turfan was abandoned by the Kashgarians, Ya-kub quietly awaited the advance of the Chinese on Turfan the extreme eastern point in his dominions.

Before engaging in a war with Yakub Bek, the Chinese entered into negotiations with him, demanding the voluntary surrender of Turfan. The General Tsin-Tsiang-Tsun sent to Yakub Bek a couple of officials with a suite of four Tungans and eight Chinamen. These messengers presented to Yakub Bek at Toksun a letter from Tsin-Tsiang-Tsun, in which it was stated that the Emperor had given orders that the war with Djetyshahr should be put a stop to, and that trading negotiations should be entered into, on the condition, however, of the cession of Turfan. In reply to this, Yakub requested the Chinese officers to represent to Tsin-Tsiang-Tsun that he was himself desirous of opening a trade with China after concluding a commercial treaty; Turfan, however he would not surrender, as he had not taken it from the Chinese, the latter might satisfy themselves with Manass, Urumtsi, Sandji, Kutubi and other places which they had taken from him and which were situated on the north side of the Thian Shan. If, on the other hand, the Chinese chose to attempt the capturo of Turfan by force, he Yakub Bek, would meet them with arms. With this answer the Chinese envoys were sent back, and preparations were made by the Chinese Commander in Chief for an advance on Turfan.

Yakub collected his forces at Toksun and Kurle, leaving very few troops in Kashgar and in other towns, such as Khotan. He appointed Bek Kuli Bek, his eldest son, Governor of Kashgar, in his own place.

In the beginning of April 1877, the Chinese made an unsuccessful attempt to seize Turfan, they were repulsed, and returned to Urumtsi. It appeared that the Chinese would not for a long time be in a condition to crush the energetic ruler of Kashgar and his strong and organized army. But an unexpected event at once turned the chances of war between China and Kashgar, Yakub Bek died suddenly on the 27th of May, and his death proved fatal to the independence of Djetyshahr.

The cause of the death of Yakub Bek has not yet been fully explained, but it would appear that he was killed by Mirza Kamal, a person in attendance upon him. The circumstance opened a wide field for dissensions, which had ever been suppressed by the severe and despotic power of the Badaulet.

Hak Kuli Bek, the youngest son of the Badaulet, being with his father at the time of his death, at once ordered all the troops in the eastern portion of Kashgaria to concentrate at Aksu, summoning to that place Hakim Khan, a person attached to the late Khan, and gave him the command of the forces. Hak Kuli himself proceeded to Kashgar, following the procession with the body of his father.

Bek Kuli, the eldest son of the Badaulet, was then at Kashgar. On hearing of the arrangements made by his brother, and probably suspecting Hak Kuli of conspiring with Hakim Khan with some sinister aim, he made up his mind forthwrith to rid himself of his brother, who so unguardedly plaed himself in his hands. Hak Kuli was murdered before he reached Kashgar, by men sent to do the deed. At the same time Bek Kuli summoned the mother and sister of Hak Kuli to Kashgar, and put them like wise to death. Having thus disposed of his possible rival, Bek Kuli marched with his troops to Aksu, where Hakim Khan was in command. The guard posted on the road by the latter was surprised and massacred. Seeing that Bek Kuli was openly advancing against Aksu with hostile intent, Hakim Khan resolved to defend himself, and declared his independence, and was joined by Niyaz Hakim Bek of Khotan.

The Chinese pomptly took advantage of the disorders which had sprung up in Djetyshahr, and once more advanced upon Turfan. Whilst one body of Chinese advanced from Urumtsi in the north, a fresh force was marched from Hami straight through the mountains. This united force occupied Turfan without meeting any resistane. Profiting by the concentration of the Kashgar army at Aksu, the Chinese pushed on to Karashahr. Within a distance of 60 versts of that place there was another hot action between the Tungans and the Chinese, which resulted in the occupation of Karashahr by the latter. The Tungans receiving no support from the regular army of Kashgar, recognized the futility of furthar resistance and fled for safety in all directions. Masses of them fled towards Kashgar, while large crowds passed over into the Russian Issyk Kul district, where previous to that numbers of Kirghiz had already sought refuge.

Owing to the conflict whieh was then proccending between Bek Kuli and Hakim Khan, the Kashgarians could not impede the rapid advance of the Chinese army.
Bek Kuli's Kashgar force consisted of only 500 men, whom he placed under the command of Aldash Bek, a Kirghiz protege of the late ruler of Kashgar. Hakim Khan however had under his control a force of 20.000 men, who were almost all Tungans.

The first encounter between the two disputants took place on a level plain between Aksu and Maralbashi; it was unfavourable to Aldash Bek. Excepting 150 men, all his forces was captured. Being informed of this, Bek Kuli sent reinforcements to Aldash Bek with several guns, which had been sent by the English through Thibet after the death of Yakub. This fat induced Hakim Khan's troops to pass over in crowds to Aldash Bek, even his Chief of Artillery deserted him, taking the guns with him. Hakim Khan, nevertheless, ventured a battle, it is asserted that 10.000 men fell on both sides, but this is, doubtless an exaggeration. Hakim Khan was completely defeated, and abandoned by all his adherents, fled with a few armed men to the district of Tokmak, in the Russian dominions.

" Unable at one and the same time to cope with the Chinese and his rebel Beks, Bek Kuli entered into negotiations with the Chinese. He despatched the Kazy Lashkar to the Chinese Commander with presents and a letter addressed to the Emperor of China. In this letter Bek Kuli begged for a cessation of the hastilities commenced by his father, Yakub Bek, who was no longer alive, or at all events for an armistice for five years.

This letter was not answered, and seeing the precarious situation of Bek Kuli Bek, the Chinese procceeded with greater boldness and decision.
Occupying Bugur and Bai without any struggle, they marched upon Kucha, the Tungans who defended that town were beaten and fell back upon Aksu, pursued by Chinese detachments. The Tungans offered no resistance either at Aksu or Utch Turfan, so that both those towns were occupied by the Chinese on the 7th of October. Here the Chinese perfilled with dead bodies. Those who survived the wholesale butchery fled to the Naryn, and found refuge in Russian territory.

Bek Kuli could not check the progress of the Chinese, being at the time engaged in hostilities in another quarter, viz., in Khotan. Niyaz Hakim Bek of Khotan, after Hakim Khan's defeat, refused to recognize the authority of Bek Kuli, and entered into negotiations with the Chinese, when the latter seized Kucha and Aksu, offering them the surrender of Khotan. Bek Kuli marched against Khotan with 15.000 men. This expedition of Bek Kuli Bek against Khotan was a failure. He did, indeed occupy the city, while Niyaz Bek was obliged to take to flight, but he soon became sensible of the impossibilty of holding the place while the Chinese, having captured Utch Turfan, were seriously threatening his capital, Kashgar. In that place the Chinese found friends and cooperators; the Chinese converts to Mohammadanism who resided in Yangishahr (within a few versts of Kashgar) revolted whereupon the Chinese on the 18th of November approached the place. Bek Kuli however, reached Yangishahr before the Chinese had time to enter it. Being strongly fortified, Yangishahr held out against Bek Kuli, who abandoning the seige, turned against the Chinese invaders. A battle ensued, which resulted in the discomfiture of the Kashgar forces, and in the undisputed occupation of Kashgar by the Chinese on the 5th of December. The panic created by the Chinese was so great that the whole of the Mohammadan population fled on their approach. Some of the fugitives repaired to Osh, while the Kirghiz and the Tungans fled to Tokmak and to the Naryn. The towns and kishlaks taken by surprise were blocked with dead bodies. Bek Kuli, seeing the universal panic, also sought Russian Protection. Shortly before crossing the Russian frontier he adressed a letter from Min-Yul to the Governor General, in which he solicited refuge, on the strength of the friendship which had from of old subsisted between Kashgar and the Turkestan region, and of the high-minded patronage which had been constantly exercised by the Governor General of Turkestan in favour of his father Yakub Bek.

Several thousand Mohammadans (Sarts, Kirghiz and Tungans) came over to the Russian territories with Bek Kuli, and in his company was the notorious enemy of the Russians, Sadyk, son of Kenisar Kasimof.

Thus, on the 5th of December, terminated the independent existence of Djetyshahr, of Kashgaria, the Mohammadan State which the English at one time desired to convert into a bulwark against the Russian possessions in Turkestan,

24th April 1878

Yazar: Mehmet SARAY
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