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Toplumlararası Savaş

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Toplumlararası Savaş

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 30 Nis 2011, 15:26

THE INTERCOMMUNAL WAR

The outbreak of World War I signalled the last phase of the intercommunal war that had begun in the 1820s. Armenians and Muslims had engaged in atrocities in the Caucasus and eastern Anatolia for 100 years, but the killings of World War I were qualitatively and quantitatively different. Whereas earlier atrocities on both sides had been geographically limited, the events of World War I took place all over the east. In earlier times, massacres had been bounded by the assertion of government authority. From 1915 on, however, there was little effective assertion of any peace-keeping authority to end the violence. The effect of this on the Armenian population was great and has long been discussed. The discussion here will be of the other side of the murderous equation -- the murders of Muslims.
Evidence from Muslim survivors of the Armenian attacks indicates that a long-term hatred was at work. Brutal rapes were everywhere evident, and torture before murder was common. Unlike atrocities against Muslims in Europe in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 and in the Balkan Wars, attacks by Armenians on the Muslims of the east during World War I seem to have been focused on murder rather than on causing flight.

There were three "sides" in the battles and massacres. On one side were the settled Muslims -- Turks, Kurds, and others -- and the Ottoman military forces. On another side were Armenians, some other native Christians, and the Russian army. On the third side were tribal Kurds, an essentially neutral force that looked for its own benefit. The first two sides were led by those who fervently advanced their cause and were committed to the total defeat of their enemies. Many civilian Armenians and Muslims, however, were peasants and urban dwellers who were compelled to join their coreligionists in total war. Inasmuch as they were being killed because they were Muslims or Armenians, they were obliged to fight as Muslims or Armenians to defend themselves. From the first, the war was distinguished by attacks on civilian populations. The innocent and peaceful on both sides were forced to fight.

Kaynakça
Kitap: Death and Exile: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821-1922
Yazar: Justin McCarthy
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TurkmenCopur
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Kayıt: 29 Eki 2010, 17:26

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