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Birinci Dünya Savaşı ve Ermeni İhaneti

Burada Ermeni Tehciri ve Terörist Ülke Ermenistan hakkında önemli başlıklar bulabilirsiniz.

Birinci Dünya Savaşı ve Ermeni İhaneti

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 30 Nis 2011, 15:19


THE CONFLICT BETWEEN MUSLIMS and Armenians of the Ottoman East, which had been developing for a hundred years, came to a climax during World War I. Two wars were fought at the same time in the east -- a war between Ottoman and Russian armies and an intercommunal war between Armenians and Muslims of eastern Anatolia and the southern Caucasus. In terms of civilian and military losses, the wars fought in the east between 1914 and 1920 were among the worst in human history. 1 The result of Ottoman weakness, Russian imperialism, European meddling, and Armenian revolutionary nationalism was widespread devastation. After the wars, cities such as Van, Bitlis, Bayazit, and Erzincan were largely rubble. Thousands of villages were destroyed. 2 Millions on both sides had died. The Armenians, who revolted to gain a nation, were left with a Soviet republic in which they were not their own masters. The Turks, who ultimately won the wars, were left with a country in ruins.


The war in the east began on 2 November 1914, when Russian forces moved south to occupy the border regions of Bayazit, Diyadin, and Karakilise. They were forced to withdraw by the end of the month, and a small Ottoman force, which attacked near Batum, was also unsuccessful. Enver Pașa's disastrous invasion of the Caucasus began late in December 1914. By mid-January of 1915, the Ottoman expeditionary forces had been defeated, with threequarters of their men lost. The way into Anatolia was opened by Ottoman losses. The Russians advanced south in spring; relatively few troops stood in their way.

Armenian revolutionaries seized the city of Van from the Ottoman government on 13 and 14 April 1915 and held it against besieging Ottoman troops who had been quickly brought up from Bitlis and the Russian front. The Russians took advantage of the revolt. Against the lightly held Ottoman frontier, they sent a force made up of Armenian volunteer units (approximately 4,000 Armenians, mainly from the Caucasus), Armenian guerrilla units (from the Caucasus and Anatolia), and a brigade of Cossacks. By the middle of May, these forces had reached Van and were threatening Bitlis. When the Ottoman forces besieging Van withdrew to concentrate on the defense of Bitlis, the Russian units entered Van ( 31 May 1915). They were deliriously welcomed by the local Armenian population. By the end of July, however, the Ottomans had brought up strong forces that drove Russians and Armenians from Van and the surrounding area. They abandoned Van on 4 August and retreated north, followed by the entire Armenian population of the occupied region.

The Ottomans were unable to advance far and were only able to control part of the Lake Van area (i.e., Malazgirt, Ahlat, and the southern shore of Lake Van). The Ottomans reoccupied what remained of the city of Van. The situation remained stagnant throughout the remainder of 1915.

During the first year of the war, the Ottomans were occupied with Armenian revolts all over eastern Anatolia. Only the revolt in Van was successful, but the other revolts caused great loss of life and significantly harmed the Ottoman war effort. The Armenians of Zeytun, always restive under Ottoman control, rebelled in August of 1914, before the war began, primarily as a protest against conscription. Their initial revolt was suppressed, but broke out again in December with attacks on Ottoman gendarmes. From then until deportations of Armenians finally ended the revolt, the Armenians of Zeytun waged guerrilla war against the Ottomans. In June 1915, the town of Kara Hisar-i Șarki was seized by Armenian revolutionaries. They were quickly driven out of most of the town, but held the citadel against Ottoman troops. Because of the speedy Armenian defeat, few Muslims were killed. However, Armenian bands in the countryside near Kara Hisar attacked and killed Muslim villagers. Armenian bands and local Armenian revolutionaries rebelled in Urfa on 29 September 1915. The Armenian quarters of the city were taken and held against local gendarmerie forces, Muslim houses were burned and Muslim civilians killed. In the Urfa rebellion, it was necessary to divert Ottoman troops to the city to defeat the rebels, who were armed with machine guns. After the defeat, 2,000 Armenians were sent from Urfa to Mosul under heavy guard.

The revolts in the eastern cities were reflected in the countryside of the Ottoman East. Armenian revolutionaries attacked Muslim villages, and Armenian villages were in turn attacked, primarily by Kurds.

In January 1916, the Russian army advanced and defeated the Ottomans. By 19 January, they were near Erzurum, which fell to them on 16 February. Mu fell on the same day; Bitlis on 3 March. On the Black Sea front, the Russians took Rize on 8 March 1916, considerably aided by their control of the Black Sea. The Ottomans were forced to abandon Trabzon on 16 April. In July, the Russians advanced, capturing Bayburt on 17 July, then Erzincan on 25 July. The rest of 1916 was spent in "mopping-up" operations in the conquered regions. The only bright spot for the Ottomans was the reconquest of Muș and Bitlis by the Ottoman Second Army, under the command of Mustafa Kemal Pașa, in August 1916. But Bitlis was later lost again.

There can be no doubt that the Russian Revolution saved the Ottomans in the east. After the February 1917 Revolution, some Russian troops had already begun to desert, and the October Revolution and Bolshevik success in Petrograd led to the effective end of the Russian army in Anatolia. Russian officers in the Caucasus and eastern Anatolia were left in command of units made up purely of officers and of non-Russian Caucasians, particularly Armenians.

During 1917, the Ottoman armies in the east regrouped. In 1918, they attacked, and, by the end of March, they had effectively regained the areas lost since 1914. Their battles were against Armenian forces, officered by Russians and Armenians, and against Armenian guerrilla forces. By April of 1918, the Ottomans had taken Batum (14 April) and Kars (25 April), extending their borders to their pre-1877 limits.

Politically, the situation in the Caucasus after the Russian collapse was in flux. At first, the three Caucasian regions of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan amalgamated into the Transcaucasian Federation, still officially keeping to their Russian allegiance, although in fact they were independent. The new Transcaucasian Federation attempted to keep what Anatolian territory it could in the face of the Ottoman advance. The Federation (officially independent as the Transcaucasian Federative Republic on 22 April 1918) attempted to negotiate with the Ottomans, but the latter imposed conditions that were unacceptable to Armenians and Georgians. The Georgians guaranteed their own position by seceding from the Federation and entering into an alliance with the Ottoman Empire's senior ally, Germany, which effectively protected them from Ottoman conquest. The Azeri Turks of the Azerbaijan Republic readily allied with their linguistic and religious brothers in the Ottoman Empire. Armenia remained an independent republic, hoping for intervention by the Allies, especially Britain and America, as its salvation. It was not to be. Neither England nor America aid the Armenians militarily.

After the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, Turkish Nationalist forces eventually united under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal. Kemal's lieutenant in the east, Kâzim Karabekir. renewed the attack. In the end, the Turkish Republic regained the Kars-Ardahan region, claimed by Armenians, which had been taken from the Ottoman Empire in 1878. The Soviets claimed Caucasian Armenia, as well as Georgia and Azerbaijan.

Kitap: Death and Exile: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821-1922
Yazar: Justin McCarthy
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Dön Ermeni Tehciri ve Terörist Ülke Ermenistan

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