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Altay Cumhuriyeti bölgesinde Antik DNA çalışmaları

Ancient DNA in Altai Republic region

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Altay Cumhuriyeti bölgesinde Antik DNA çalışmaları

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 11 Nis 2015, 01:57

Altay Cumhuriyeti bölgesinde Antik DNA çalışmaları

Altai Republic, 400 - 100 BCE


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Altai Republic, 500 BCE

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Ricaut et al. (2004) discovered the presence of mtDNA haplogroup N1a (16147A, 16172C, 16223T, 16248T, and 16355T) in an Iron Age Scytho-Siberian skeleton from the Altai, reporting the presence of haplogroup N1a among Iranians and upper caste Havik Brahmins from India.

The same sequence was detected in a Neolithic Central European (DER1) of the Linearbandkeramik (LBK) culture, with reported modern matches in Egypt and Armenia. The following haplogroups were detected in the Neolithic LBK gene pool: H*, N1a, K, HV, T2, V, J, W, U3.

A later study by Gokcumen et al. (2008) discovered the presence of N1a in modern Kazakhs from the Altai:

The haplotypic variation within the seven N1a samples was relatively high (Table 2), with these haplotypes belonging to both the European and Central Asian branches of this haplogroup, as recently defined by Haak et al. (2005). Thus, the source of N1a haplotypes in Altaian Kazakhs was unclear, although they seemed to have originated west of this part of Central Asia (Gokcumen et al., 2007).

Haplogroup N1a was found to be a genuine signature of the Central European Neolithic by contrasting its high representation in the LBK with the overwhelming presence of haplogroup U (and especially U5 and U4) mtDNA among the Paleolithic and Mesolithic populations of the region.

N1a was also detected in medieval high-status Hungarians: Commoners show a predominance of mtDNA haplotypes and haplogroups (H, R, T), common in west Eurasia, while high-status individuals, presumably conquering Hungarians, show a more heterogeneous haplogroup distribution, with haplogroups (N1a, X) which are present at very low frequencies in modern worldwide populations and are absent in recent Hungarian and Sekler populations.

While, as we saw, N1a was frequent among Neolithic Central Europeans, its absence in Hungarian commoners suggests that it was re-introduced -in the high status individuals- from Asia.

Interestingly, there has been European and Asian mtDNA evidence that allows us to have a good idea of the mtDNA landscape on which N1a-bearing people migrated from west to east.

nucleotide position 16147 C→A, 16172 T→C, 16223 C→T, 16248 C→T, and 16355 C→T

1. mtDNA haplogroup N1a (16147A, 16172C, 16223T, 16248T, and 16355T) Kizil
The haplotypic variation within the seven N1a samples was relatively high (Table 2), with these haplotypes belonging to both the European and Central Asian branches of this haplogroup, as recently defined by Haak et al. (2005). Thus, the source of N1a haplotypes in Altaian Kazakhs was unclear, although they seemed to have originated west of this part of Central Asia (Gokcumen et al., 2007).

Haplogroup N1a was found to be a genuine signature of the Central European Neolithic by contrasting its high representation in the LBK with the overwhelming presence of haplogroup U (and especially U5 and U4) mtDNA among the Paleolithic and Mesolithic populations of the region.

2. mtDNA haplogroup F2a 16093C 16203G 16231C 16291T 16304C Sebÿstei Valley [SEB 96 K1]
3. mtDNA haplogroup D 16093C 16129A 16173T 16223T 16319A 16362C AND YDNA haplogroup R1a1a Sebÿstei Valley [SEB 96K2]


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Sebystei in Altai Republic, 500 BCE

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R1a

Altai Republic, 4000 - 200 BCE

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Gorny Altai in Altai Republic, 3500 BCE

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MTDNA: A4
3500 BC Female Kaminnaya Cave, Gorny Altai
Altai Republic
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Re: Altay Cumhuriyeti bölgesinde Antik DNA çalışmaları

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 13 Haz 2015, 01:57

Allentoft et al 2015, Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia

Between the years 800 BCE - 100 AD, at the Altai Republic region, among the Sakha Turks, the Y-DNA haplogroups J2, J2a and Q1a are found. Since the root/core of the Turk Nation is of West Eurasian origin(which all leads to the Sumerians whom are Proto Turks and spoke a Turk language), the finding of J2a at this period, probably being found among the Sakha/Scythian Turks, is very very important and shows that other West Eurasian Y-DNA haplogroups will be found at these regions during several periods, and also shows that these West Eurasian Y-DNA haplogroups are associated with the Proto Turks. For years, based on the Haplogroup J findings at the limited studies among the Turks of Türkiye, the US and Russian agents attacked the Turk Nation in an honourless way by trying to force the lies that Turks of Türkiye are different than the Turks of Central Asia, the J2 findings at the Allentoft et al 2015 paper should feel like a punch for those Turk haters. The same Y-DNA haplogroup is also found at the same study, at the South Siberian regions from the same period(Iron Age), again among the Sakha Turk graves.

sampleId -------- groupA -------- Y-DNA -------- MT-DNA
RISE504 -------- irRus -------- J2 -------- C4a1d

sampleId -------- groupA -------- Y-DNA -------- MT-DNA
RISE600 -------- irAltai -------- Q1a -------- K2a5
RISE601 -------- irAltai -------- Q1a -------- M8a1
RISE602 -------- irAltai -------- J2a -------- C4+152

sampleId -------- groupA -------- Y-DNA -------- MT-DNA
RISE553 -------- baAfGo -------- R1a -------- F1b
RISE554 -------- baAfGo -------- NA -------- F1b1b

sampleId -------- groupA -------- Y-DNA -------- MT-DNA
RISE546 -------- baYam -------- R1b -------- U5a1d2b
RISE547 -------- baYam -------- R1b -------- T2a1a
RISE548 -------- baYam -------- R1b -------- U4
RISE550 -------- baYam -------- R1b -------- U5a1i
RISE552 -------- baYam -------- I2a -------- T2a1a

sampleId -------- groupA -------- Y-DNA -------- MT-DNA
RISE560 -------- baBb -------- R1b -------- U5a1a1
RISE563 -------- baBb -------- R1b -------- K1c1
RISE564 -------- baBb -------- R1b -------- H+16311
RISE566 -------- baBb -------- R1b -------- H

sampleId -------- groupA -------- Y-DNA -------- MT-DNA
RISE555 -------- baStq -------- R1b -------- N1a1a+152

sampleId -------- groupA -------- Y-DNA -------- MT-DNA
RISE1 -------- baCw -------- R1b -------- K1b1a1
RISE94 -------- baCw -------- R1a -------- K1a2a
RISE431 -------- baCw -------- R1a -------- T2e
RISE434 -------- baCw -------- R1a -------- U4
RISE436 -------- baCw -------- R1 -------- U5b1c2
RISE446 -------- baCw -------- R1a -------- U5b1c2

sampleId -------- groupA -------- Y-DNA -------- MT-DNA
RISE47 -------- baSca -------- R1b -------- J1c1b
RISE61 -------- baSca -------- R1a -------- J1c4
RISE98 -------- baSca -------- R1b -------- K1b1a1
RISE175 -------- baSca -------- I1a -------- T1a1
RISE179 -------- baSca -------- NA -------- K1a3
RISE207 -------- baSca -------- I1 -------- J1c8a1
RISE276 -------- baSca -------- R1b -------- T2b

sampleId -------- groupA -------- Y-DNA -------- MT-DNA
RISE386 -------- baSin -------- R1a -------- J1c1b1a
RISE392 -------- baSin -------- R1a -------- J2b1a2a

sampleId -------- groupA -------- Y-DNA -------- MT-DNA
RISE397 -------- baArm -------- R1b -------- T1a2
RISE413 -------- baArm -------- R1b -------- T2c1f
RISE416 -------- baArm -------- NA -------- K1a17a
RISE423 -------- baArm -------- E1b -------- T2a
RISE408 -------- irArm -------- J2b -------- I5c

sampleId -------- groupA -------- Y-DNA -------- MT-DNA
RISE524 -------- baMezh -------- R1b -------- J2b1a
RISE525 -------- baMezh -------- R1a -------- I5c

sampleId -------- groupA -------- Y-DNA -------- MT-DNA
RISE512 -------- baAndrov -------- R1a -------- U2e1

sampleId -------- groupA -------- Y-DNA -------- MT-DNA
RISE247 -------- baHu -------- I2a -------- C
RISE254 -------- baHu -------- I2 -------- J1c9
RISE374 -------- baHu -------- G2a -------- T2b
RISE479 -------- baHu -------- I2 -------- T2b

sampleId -------- groupA -------- Y-DNA -------- MT-DNA
RISE486 -------- baRem -------- I2 -------- J1c1b
RISE487 -------- baRem -------- I2 -------- H2a
RISE489 -------- baRem -------- I2a -------- X2c1

sampleId -------- groupA -------- Y-DNA -------- MT-DNA
RISE492 -------- baKarasuk -------- R1a -------- D4b1a2a2
RISE493 -------- baKarasuk -------- Q1a -------- C4a1c
RISE494 -------- baKarasuk -------- R1a -------- I4a1
RISE495 -------- baKarasuk -------- R1a -------- D4j1

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The huge Allentoft et al. 2015 research about low-coverage genomes from 101 ancient humans from across Eurasia included one male dated 900 BC to 1000 AD Sary-Bel Kurgan burial sample (RISE602). From archaeological descriptions it looks like complexes (II c. BC – I century AD) Bulan-Koba culture, which has been following the Scythian-Saka epoch in the Russian Altai (near border to Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia).

The “L24 group” did collect the info (Людмила Рябченко translation, Kemal AL Gazzah with Ted Kandell first BAM analysis, Al Aburto usage of BAM Analysis Kit on the BAM file and David Dugas the first prediction of the J2a2 position.

My comparison to the J2-M172 tree confirms this. RISE602 is M410+ CTS7683- PF5058+ PF5073+ PF5000+ PF5032+ PF5037+ PF5017+ PF5027+ PF5052+ PF5060+ PF7380+ PF5027+ P279- M340- PF5048- PF5061-
J2a-PF5050>PF5058>PF5000>PF5060(xP279,PF5048)
See http://tree.j2-m172.info/?Hg=J2a2


Armaments of Nomads of the Altai Mountains (First Half of the 1st Millennium AD)
Author: Khudjakov, Julij S.
Source: Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, Volume 58, Number 2, 18 July 2005, pp. 117-133(17)
Publisher: Akademiai Kiado

The study of the armaments of the Gorny Altaic nomadic tribes that formed parts of the Xiongnu, Xianbei and Ruanruan empires is of great importance for the military history of the Central Asian nomads. In the 1st-3rd centuries AD the nomads of the Bulan-Koba culture were armed with compound bows with bone brackets, arrows with iron three-bladed arrowheads and plugs, and handles or divided handles. In close combat they used swords, broadswords, and daggers. For self-protection, Bulan-Koba warriors used breastplates made of iron. Gorny Altaic nomad weapons were greatly influenced by the armaments of the Xiongnu and the Sarmatians. There were two nomadic groups in Gorny Altai in the 3rd-5th centuries AD: the Kok-Pash culture and the Ayrydash type. Kok-Pash armaments included bows with bone brackets and three-bladed, three-sided and rhombic arrowheads. Kok-Pash warriors had broadswords and daggers in their military equipment. They were protected by breastplates and special belts made of iron plates. The Kok-Pash culture has definite similarities with the Ulug-Khem and Kokeli cultures in Tuva. We can trace the influences of Xianbei culture in the armament material and equipment of these cultures. Ayrydash tombs contain bone bow brackets, iron three-bladed, rhombic and lenticular arrowheads, bone arrowheads with plugs and whistles, as well as arrowheads with rhombic shaped handles and divided handles. Armaments of the Ayrydash tombs can be dated from the time of Ruanruan supremacy in Central Asia. The nomads of Sayan-Altai during the first half of the 1st millenium AD were lightly-armed archers. They were not as well equipped as the Xiongnu, Xianbei and Ruanruan in terms of close combat equipment and defensive weapons and armour.


Summary. The article informs researchers about finds of iron chisels — the unique woodworking tools which were found in the Verkh-Uymon barrow in Altai while studying the Bulan-Kobinskiy artifact of the Hunno-Sarmatian times. The instruments are very rare and unique finds in the archaeological sites. The highly specialized tools appeared only at the time of the developed manufacture and were of great importance for the evaluation of economic activities being the indisputable indicator of the woodworking level.

The authors have made an assumption that at the Hunno-Sarmatian time woodworking in Altai was not considered to be the independent sphere of economic activity but existed as a part of the home production. But the emergence of the woodworking tools specialization clearly reflects the process of isolation of the woodworking craft among the Altai inhabitants in the first half of the 1st millennium AD

http://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/zhelez ... -altay.pdf


Hunnenzeitliche Tracht einer Nomadin aus dem Hochaltai : Eine Rekonstruktion = Hun Outfit of a Nomad Woman from the High Altai : Reconstitution

105 tombes ont été fouillées entre 1988 et 1994 dans la nécropole de Ust-E˙digan, dans l'Altaï. Parmi les 76 sépultures qui appartenaient à la culture de Bulan-Koba (époque des Huns), une tombe de femme a livré, du fait de sa conception hermétique, de nombreux objets en matériaux organiques bien conservés, dont la coiffe et une partie des vêtements, ceci permettant une reconstitution du costume de cette nomade.

105 graves were excavated between 1988 and 1994 in the necropolis of Ust-E˙digan in Altai. Of the 76 graves belonging to the culture of Bulan-Koba (time of the Huns), a woman has delivered grave, because of its tight design, many objects well preserved organic materials, the cap and part of the clothing this allows a reconstruction of the costume of the nomad.

Revue / Journal Title
Eurasia antiqua ISSN 0949-0434
Source / Source
1997, vol. 3, pp. 581-594 (10 ref.)
Langue / Language
Allemand
Revue : Divers
Editeur / Publisher
Zabern, Mainz, ALLEMAGNE (1995) (Revue)

http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=2461642


The huge Allentoft et al. 2015 research with low-coverage genomes from 101 ancient humans from across Eurasia included two males from Altai Iron Age (900 BC to 1000 AD) in the same J2a2 haplogroup. Even more intriguing is that the ancient genomes share unique Y-SNPs with two modern samples: one Uygur and one Turkish, currently best named as J2a2-PH3085,SK1403.

Sary-Bel Kurgan burial sample (RISE602, SAMEA3325434, ERX925332). From archaeological descriptions it looks like complexes (II c. BC – I century AD) Bulan-Koba culture, which has been following the Scythian-Saka epoch in the Russian Altai (near border to Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia).
RISE602 is positive for (Aburto BAM Analysis Kit file): M410+ CTS7683- PF5058+ PF5073+ PF5000+ PF5032+ PF5037+ PF5017+ PF5027+ PF5052+ PF5060+ PF7380+ PF5027+ P279- M340- PF5048- PF5061-

Kytmanovo 721-889 AD (RISE504, SAMEA3325397, ERX925295) also from the Russian Altai (more northern then RISE602 / south of Novosibirsk).
RISE504 is positive for the following J2a2 and below SNPs (more comprehensive BAM analysis): PF5022+ PF5050+ Z35775+ PF5035+ PF5041+ PF5073+ L581+ PF5044+ PF5000+ PF5002+ PF5013+ PF5031+ PF5032+ PF5038+ PF7384+ PF5015+ PF5017+ PF5027+ PF5036+ PF5043+ PF5056+ PF5064+ PF5003+ PF5027+ PF5031+ Z35889+ Z28380+ Z28381+ Z28386+ Z28401+ Z28402+ Z28403+ Z28420- Z28424- P279.1- YFS082471- Z35890- YFS082495+ YFS082526- YFS082653+ YFS083128- YFS083130+ M340- PF5061- PF5067- PF5070- PF5071- PF5082- L383.1-

J2a2 Tree 2015-06-15Since PF5056 is equivalent to PF5060 and PF5048 is equivalent to PF5082 they are in the same paragroup.
Analysis of “singleton” SNPs was done only by comparison with two other PF5056(xP279,PF5048) samples because of the low coverage of the ancient samples (risk of false detection). The samples have different coverage:

RISE602 Sary-Bel, BAM,
PH1105+ PH1678+ PH1984+ PH2125+ PH3085+ PH3766+ PH3934+ PH5426+ SK1403+
RISE504 Kytmanov, BAM,
PH358+ PH562+ PH638+ PH1984+ PH2125+ PH3085+ PH4480+ SK1403+ Z19832+
Uyg1304 Uygur, SK-SNPs/Stoneking BAM, 0.5 Mb, Lippold et al 2014, HGDP01304
PH2466+ SK1403+ SK1404+ SK1405+
Tur-13 Turkey, PH-SNPs list, 3.5 Mb, Hallast et al 2014, Y-STR23 available
All PH-SNPs listed above positive and additionally SK1403+ SK1404+ SK1405+ Z19832+ and has 4 PH-SNPs negative at least in one of the above samples and 10 PH-SNPs with no-reads in the other three samples
Shared Y-Haplogroup: J2a2-PF5050>PF5058>PF5000>PF5056>PH3085,SK1403 or shorter form J2a2-PH3085,SK1403

See http://tree.j2-m172.info/?Hg=J2a2

See also Altai archaeology

The “L24 group” did collect RISE602 info (Людмила Рябченко translation, Kemal AL Gazzah with Ted Kandell first BAM analysis, Al Aburto usage of BAM Analysis Kit on the BAM file (SNP extraction) and David Dugas the first prediction of the J2a2 position.

http://j2-m172.info/2015/06/j2a2-ph3085 ... r-turkish/
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Re: Altay Cumhuriyeti bölgesinde Antik DNA çalışmaları

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 08 Tem 2015, 03:42

Altay Kurganları Demir Çağı Y-DNA ve mtDNA Örnekleri (M.Ö. 1000 – M.S. 600)

Allentoft et al 2015 ‘in yaptığı çalışma ile Altay bölgesinde Demir Çağı dönemine ait kurganlarda çeşitli Y-DNA ve mtDNA örnekleri bulunmuştur. Allentoft ve arkadaşlarının yaptıkları çalışma neticesinde J2a, Q1a ve R1a Y-DNA (baba hattı) haplogrupları ile K2a5, M8a1 ve C4a1d mtDNA (anne hattı) haplogrupları bulunmuştur. Aşağıdaki haritada DNA örneklerinin bulunduğu arkeolojik alanlar yer almaktadır.

RISE602, Y-DNA J2

Demir Çağı (M.Ö. 1000-M.S. 600) dönemine tarihlendirilen Sary-bel kurganında bulunan bir adet erkek örneğin J2 haplogrubuna mensup olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Bu örneğin ortalama M.Ö. 200 ilâ M.S. 50 arasında bir dönemde yaşadığı tahmin edilmektedir. Makale ekinde verilen BAM dosyaları üzerinde yapılan analizlerde J2a örneğinin L581 dalına mensup olma ihtimali üzerinde durulmaktadır. J2a haplogrubu günümüzde Batı Asya, Orta Asya ve Avrupa’da görülen Y-DNA haplogruplarından biridir. Dolayısıyla bu haplogrubun Altaylara, Orta Asya’dan geldiği düşünülmektedir. J2a-L581 örneklerine ise günümüzde Uygurlar, Türkiye Türkleri ve Balkarlar gibi Türki halklarda ve kısmen Moğollarda rastlanmaktadır. Yine 16200 yaşındaki bu alt dal, bazı Avrupalı ve Orta Doğulularda da görülmektedir. J2 örneği, kurgandan elde edildiği için önemli bir kişi veya devlet adamı vb olduğu düşünülmektedir. Bu haplogrubun Demir Çağından itibaren Altaylarda görülmesi, daha önce sadece tunç yapımı silah ve eşyalar kullanılan bu bölgeye demirciliğin J2a haplogrubu ile birlikte geldiği ihtimalini ortaya koyabilir. Ancak sonraki araştırmalarda bu bölgede Tunç Çağına özgü J2a örneği bulunması durumunda bu varsayım geçersiz kalacaktır. Sarı-bel kurganıyla ilgili fazla bilgi verilmese de demir çağı dönemine ait olması nedeniyle J2a örneğinin Saka, Hun veya Göktürk dönemlerinden birine ait olduğu düşünülebilir.

RISE504, Y-DNA J2

Aynı döneme ait diğer bir J2 örneği ise Kytmanovo arkeolojik sit alanında bulunmuştur. Kytmanovo, Altayların kuzeyinde Sibirya’da yer almaktadır. Bu örneğin de J2a haplogrubunun L581 alt dalına mensup olduğu tahmin edilmektedir. Ancak bu örnek, daha geç bir döneme, yani en erken M.S. 721’e tarihlendirilmektedir. Mezarın türü hakkında makale ekinde bilgi verilmemiştir. Demir Çağı dönemi Kytmanovo arkeolojik sit alanı hakkında da ayrıntılı bilgi yer almamaktadır. Ancak örneğin tarihlendirildiği dönem Göktürk Kağanlığı (552-744) dönemine denk gelmektedir.

RISE602, RISE504, mtDNA C4a1

J2’nin görüldüğü Sary-bel ve Kytmanovo J2’lerinin anne hatları (mtDNA) ise C4a1 olarak tespit edilmiştir. C4a1 mtDNA haplogrubu, Orta Asya, Sibirya ve Amerika yerlilerinde oldukça makul oranlarda görülmektedir.

RISE600, RISE601, Y-DNA Q1a

Demir Çağı dönemine ait diğer bir Y-DNA haplogrubu ise Q1a’dır. Bu örnek Verh Uimon’daki kurganlarda iki adet bulunmuştur. Q1a haplogrubu günümüzde özellikle Türkmenlerde fazla görülen bir haplogruptur. Zaten bu haplogrubun alt dal tespiti M25 olarak belirlenmiştir. Q1a-M25, Türkmenistan ve Afganistan Türkmenlerinde görülen bir daldır. Ancak bu haplogrup diğer Türkî gruplarda az görülür. Bu iki Q1a örneğinin tarihlendirilmesi yapılmamıştır; ancak makalede Demir Çağı dönemine ait oldukları belirtilmektedir. Dolayısıyla Q1a-M25 örneği, Altaylarda Saka, Hun veya Göktürk dönemlerine tarihlendirilebilir.

RISE600, mtDNA K2a5

Verh Uimon arkeolojik sit alanında bulunan Q1a örneklerinden bir diğerinin mtDNA haplogrubu K2a5 olarak tespit edilmiştir. K haplogrubunun Batı Asya çıkışlı olduğu genetikçilerin genel kanısıdır.

RISE601, mtDNA M8a1

Verh Uimon arkeolojik sit alanında bulunan Q1a örneklerinden bir diğerinin mtDNA haplogrubu M8a1 olarak tespit edilmiştir. M8a1, günümüzde Orta Asya ve Doğu Asya’da belirli oranlarda görülmektedir. M haplogrubunun ise ilk olarak Güney Asya’da ortaya çıktığı düşünülmektedir.

RISE492, Y-DNA R1a; mtDNA D4b1a2a2

Altayların kuzeydoğusunda Demir Çağı dönemine ait arkeolojik sit alanında bulunan diğer bir Y-DNA örneği de R1a haplogrubudur. Sabinka 2 (demir çağı) sit alanında bulunan R1a örneği M.Ö. 396 ile M.Ö. 209 yılları arasına tarihlendirilmektedir. Arkeolojik sit alanıyla ilgili makalede pek fazla bilgi verilmemektedir. Ancak R1a haplogrubu örneklerinin Sibirya’da Tunç Çağı ve öncesinde de bulunduğu bilinmektedir. R1a günümüzde Almanlar, Slavlar ve Tatarlarda yüksek oranlarda görülmektedir. R1a haplogrubu, günümüz Kuzey Altay halklarında da en baskın haplogruplardan biri olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır.

Y-str.org tarafından yayımlanan bilgiye göre antik RISE492’nin mtDNA’sı D4b1a2a2’dir. Daha önce de belirtildiği gibi D4b1a, o yöreye özgü anne hattı haplogruplarından biridir.

http://www.haplogruplar.com/altay-kurga ... ornekleri/
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Re: Altay Cumhuriyeti bölgesinde Antik DNA çalışmaları

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 18 Eyl 2015, 23:37

New DNA tests on ancient Denisovan people shows them occupying Altai cave 170,000 years ago

Wednesday, September 16, 2015 18:41

It was here in the Deinsova Cave in 2008 that Siberian scientists discovered a finger bone fragment of 'X woman', a juvenile female.

It has been called the cave that holds the key to man's origins, and it keeps producing more surprises. It was here in the Deinsova Cave in 2008 that Siberian scientists discovered a finger bone fragment of 'X woman', a juvenile female believed to have lived around 41,000 years ago. Analysis showed she was genetically distinct from Neanderthals and modern humans.

In 2010 analysis on an upper molar from a young adult, found in the cave ten years previously, was also from a Denisovan. As we reported previously: 'Traces in the 'cultural layer' of the Denisova Cave show the human habitat reaching back 282,000 years.' The richness of the cave's prehistoric contents means scientists from around the world are co-operating in seeking to solve its riddles.

http://beforeitsnews.com/science-and-te ... 84606.html
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