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Kaşgar'a Gönderilen Osmanlı Subayı ve İngilizlere Rapor

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Kaşgar'a Gönderilen Osmanlı Subayı ve İngilizlere Rapor

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 20 Ara 2010, 17:29

Kaşgar'a Gönderilen Osmanlı Subaylarından Muhammed Yusuf Efendi'nin Doğu Türkistan'daki Çin işgali Hakkında İngilizlere Verdiği Rapor

Lord Lytton, the Vieroy of India, to Viscount Cranbrook, No. 15, Lahore, December 19, 1878

My lord,
I have the honour to forward, for the information of Her Majesty's Government, copy of correspondence, which furnishes an interesting account of late events in Eastern Türkistan.

Inclosure 4 in No. 15
Mr. Jenkyns, Deputy Commissioner, to Lieut. - Colonel Waterfield, Pashawar, September 28, 1878.

In the year 1873, three officers of the Turkish army were lent by the Sultan of Turkey to the late Emir Yakub Khan of Kashghar for the purpose of instructing his troops. They proceeded to Eastern Türkistan with Seyyid Yakub Khan Tore, Envoy of the Emir of Kashghar at the time of Sir D.Forsyth's mission, and remained in the country till the ir-ruption of the Chinese.
One of these Turks, named Muhammed Yusuf Efendi, arrived in Pashawar on the 20 th of September, on his way to Istanbul. He travelled by way of Sankol, Badakhshan, and Kabul. At my request he has furnished a succinct account of the late events in Eastern Türkistan, which I think will prove interesting to Government. Muhammed Yusuf Efendi was himself an eye-witness of all that he relates; his story, there-fore, although coming some what late in the day, may be ac-cepted as entirely trustworthy, as far as it goes.
I have made a translation of the statement, and beg to inclose it for the information of Government.

Inclosure 5 in No. 15.
Statement made by Muhammed Yusuf Efendi, late in the service of the Emir of Kashghar.

I was a cavalry officer in the army of the Sultan of Turkey. In the year 1873 Haji Tore, i.e., (Seyyid Yakub Khan To--re), came on a mission to the Sultan from the Emir of Kash-ghar, and preferred a request that three military officers of the Turkish army might be lent to the Emir of Kashgar, in order to instruct his troops. The Sultan complied with this request, and deputed an artillery, an infantry and a cavalry officer to proceed with the Envoy Haji Tore. Yusuf Ismail from the infantry, my self from the cavalry, and Ismail Efendi from the artillery, were the officers selected. We were each given the rank of Yusbashi (Captain), and our services were given for a period of two years.

We left Istanbul in company with Haji Tore. 3.000 rifles and 30 guns, with a flag, were also sent by the Sultan to the Emir. We travelled to India, and joining the English Envoy, who was then proceeding on a mission to Kashghar, we accompanied him to Yarkand by the Kashmir and Ladakin road.

Arriving in Eastern Türkistan, we were employed for two years in drilling and instructing the Emir's army. At the end of two years we requested permission to depart. Emir Yakub Khan refused to let us depart, saying that his army was not yet sufficiently instructed, but he said he was about to send another Envoy to Istanbul, who would ask the Sultan to replace us with three new men, after which we could return home.
The Sultan declined to send other officers but gave us permission to stay another year in Türkistan. He also granted each of us a step in rank.

About this time it began to be rumoured that the Chi-nese were approaching the eastern frantier. Emir yakub Khan left his eldest son, Beg Kulu Beg, in Kashghar, and marched with the whole of his army to Takhta Sun with the object of engaging the Chinese. Takhta Sun is 20 marches from Kashghar. I and the other two Turks accompanied the Emir on this expedition. The Emir himself halted at Takhta Sun, and sent forward a force of 3.000 men to Urumchi, which is 5 marches beyond Takhta Sun. There were, besides, 5.000 Tungani troops in Urumchi who acknowledge the Emir's authority. When the Chinese approached Urumchi the Emir's troops 1 'd to Devanchi, and the Chinese took possession of Urumchi as well as the towns of Kamti and Manas.
The Emir then retreated to Kurla, but left his younger son, Hak Kulu beg, in Takhta Sun. I remained in Takhta Sun v/ith Hak Kulu Beg. Kurla is 8 Marches from Takhta Sun. Hak Kulu remained the whole winter in Takhta Sun. In the spring the Chinese advanced and took possession of De-vanchi and Turfan. The Governor of Turfan fled to Takhta Sun, where he took council with Hak Kulu Beg as to the advisability of trying further to oppose the Chinese. They decided that they were unable to oppose the enemy, and that, without the orders of the Emir, they ought not further to risk defeat. At the same time disaffection fell into the Emir's army. When the Chinese took Devanchi the garrison fell into their hands, but instead of putting them to sword promiscuo-usly, they put them to death, whereas the natives of Yar-kand, Kashgar, Khutan, Aksu, Kuchar, Karla, Turfan, Yangi Shahr... were treated kindly and allowed to return to their homes. This had the effect of detaching a considerable part of the Emir's army from him, and they refused to fight with the Chinese, seeing this spirit among his troops, Hak Kulu fled from his post and came to Kara Shahr, which was formerly a city, but now only the name remains. The Emir was extremely angry at the flight of Hak Kulu Beg. I remained for fifteen days in Kara Shahr with Hak Kulu; there was great dif-ficulty in procuring food or water. The Emir remained in Kurla in a state of despondeney. About this time a Russian Enfoy arrived, and after seeing the Emir, returned. Five days after his departure the Emir died. He was not suffering from any illness, but all at once, as he sat down, blood began to flow from his nose, and left to go to the mosque even to pray, he lay down and immediately expired. Some said that Hak Kulu had poisoned him; others said one of the Emir's wives had killed him, another rumour was that the Russian Envoy was the cause of his death. I am quite sure that Hak Kulu Beg had nothing to do with the Emir's death. The pro-papility is that the Emir was poisoned.

On his father's death Hak Kulu came into Kurla and remained there five days, gaining over the troops by presents of clothes, and by disbursing their arrears of pay. He then appointed Hakim Khan Tore to the command of the army in Kurla, and taking with him the Emir's dead body started for Kashghar. I remained with the troops in Kurla. One day anly passed when the troops in Kurla arose and proclaimed Hakim Khan Tore King, in place of the Emir. Hakim Khan left Kurla in charge of the Tunganis, amounting to 5.000 and with the army set out in pursuit of Hak Kulu. His object was to destroy the family of the Emir and make himself King. On arriving in Kuchar. Hakim Khan took the Governor of that town on with him towards Kashgar. The treasure of the Emir had beed deposited in Aksu. Hak Kulu took a part of it and distributed among his troops, leaving the remainder in Aksu. As soon as the toorp with hak Kulu heard of the approach of HaTiim Khan, they deserted Hak Kulu and joined Hakim Khan. Hak Kulu was now left alone. On the approach of Hakim Khan to Aksu, Hak Kulu fled to Kashghar to join his brother Beg Kulu. Beg Kulu thought his brother was earning to usurp the place of his father. He accordingly sent fifty men to meet Hak Kulu as he approached Kashghar, under the pretence of doing him honour, but with secret instructions to assassinate him, wihich they carried in to effect.

Two months after this event a battle took place between the forces of Beg Kulu and Hakim Khan. Hakim Khan was defeated and took refuge in Russian territory. Beg Kulu then appointed new Governors in the different .eastern cities, and himself returned to Kashghar. From Kashghar he imme-diately marhed upon Khutan, where the Governor, Niyaz Bey, had shown a disposition to oppose Beg Kulu. As soon the Chinese heard of Beg Kulu's move upon Khutan they marched westward, rapidly taking Kurla Kuchar. Beg Kulu was successful in taking possession of Khutan. Niyaz Beg fled and joined the Chinese. Hearing of the advane of the Chinese, Beg Kulu despaired of being able to hold his own. He collected all his ^treasure and sent it off towards Thibet and Kashmir, and himself attempted to follow in the same direction, but the throops that were with him, hearing of his flight, pursued and stopped him before he could escape. The treasure, however, was not recovered. Beg Kulu then returned to Kashghar. In that city there were about 2.000 recent converters to Muhammedanism, who as the Chinese approached the city, took forcible possession of Yangi Shahr, and renounced their nefreligion, returning to Budhism. Beg Kulu Beg was now a wanderer in the desert. I continued all along with him. At last the Chinese came and took possession of Kashghar. Then I and my companions from Turkey consulted what we should do. My two companions decided to follow Beg Kulu. I was desirous of seeing something of the Chinese, and noting down their peculiarities. I had been making notes of the English and other nations whom I had seen, and wished to complete them by some notes about the Chinese. Beg Kulu went into Russian ferritory. I returned to Kashghar, and remained there five months after the Chinese arrived. The whole strenght of the Chinese army was 6.000 men. The Government of the Chinese was very fair and just. After that the Chinese, who had treated me well, allowed me to deaprt. They gave a passport and five men to accompany me. I tra-velled over the Pamir through Sankol and Wakhan to Faiza-bad in Badakhshan. There I dismissed the men from Kash-ghar. In Faizabad I met an Envoy from Chittral, who told me he was going to Kabul to consult Emir Sher Ali âbout the approached of the English. He said that an English force had approached Chittral, and had sent a present of money to the Ruler of Chittral, in order to produse a place to occupy in his country. He added, "We are poor, humble people; we cannot take upon ourselves this, so I am going to Kabul to consult the Emir about it". I again saw this man on his way back from Kabul, but he would tell me nothing of the answer he had received from the Emir.

I sayed one month in Faizabad, and then went to Kabul, where I' remained fifteen days. I had four interviews with the Emir of Kabul. He asked me about events in Kashghar and other things.

He also told me that the Russians had brought him their replies (presents) that an English Envoy was also coming; that the object of both Russian and English was to conclude an alliance with him, but he had no desire to have an alliance with either of them:

"I am", he added, "the vassal of the Sultan of Turkey." the Russian Envoy in kabul having heard of my arrival sent for me. From him I first heard an account of the late war in Europe between Russia and Turkey. He offered to send me to Istanbul through Russia, and the Emir Said I might go that way if I liked. I said I did not wish to go through Russia; that if I had cared to go that way I would never have travelled all the way from Kashghar to Kabul. The Emir then sent me on by Jalalabad to Pasha-war, giving me men to accompany me. He had allowed me five rs. per day expenses, and 400 rs. road expenses on departure. From Dakka I came down to Michni on a raft, sending my horses by the Abkhana route. From Kashghar to Faiza-bad is twenty marches, by another road the distance is ten marches, but this is very rough, over mountains. Kabul is ten marches from Badakhsan. I intend to proceed to Istanbul by Bombay.

Muhammed Yunus, Dadkhwah of Yarkand, adhered to Beg Kulu Beg throughout the revolution. When Beg Kulu sent his reasure to India via Cashmere, the Dadkhwah took the same opportunity to send away his own valuables. When the Chinese came the Dadkhwah, with 1.000 horseme of his own, fled to Sankol. He wished to come to India, but by reasop of the cold and snow and the roughness of the road he was unable to do this. He went to Tashkurghan, having broken up his party into small groups of or five, who travelled separately. The Governor of Tashkurghan, Alif Beg, seized all these refugees, and stripped them of their arms; Muhammed Yunus, Dadkhwah also was not spared. He and his son and two brothers were detained. One Haji Beg, who accompanied the Dadkhwah, was not imprisoned by Alif Beg. Ali Beg said he was afraid of the Emir of Afgahanistan, and therefore detained the Dadkhwah. Mulla Ashur, Kashghari was sent by the Chinese, with 100 men, to bring back the Dadk-hwah. Alif Beg delivered up the Dadkhwah to Mulla Ashur, who carried him to Kashghar, but Ali Beg solemnly assured the Dadkhwah that his life and that of his relatives should be spared. The Chinese respected this case to Pekin for orders. Meawfhile the Dadkhwah's life, referring his case to Pekin for orders. Meanfhile the Dadkhwah was put in charge of Hussan Khan, Bai, merchant, with whom he lived in a sort of open arrest. All money and valuable property belonging to the Dadkhwah were confiscated by the Chinese.

The Chinese were so pleased with Alif Beg for capturing Muhammed Yunus that they conferred the government of all Sankol and the adjoining countries upon him.

Yazar: Mehmet SARAY
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