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Balkan Savaşlarında Müslüman Mülteciler

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 30 Nis 2011, 14:52

MUSLIM REFUGEES

The entire population of the countryside is fleeing southwards. Not only the population of the district held by the Bulgars; nor of the regions in which actual fighting is taking place. The entire population.

During the First Balkan War, Muslims fled in great waves to three gathering points of refugees -- Albania and the cities of Salonica and Edirne. Ethnically Albanian Muslims were forcibly driven from the Ottoman vilâyet of Kosova into Albania by Serbian troops, joining other Muslims who had fled ahead of the armies. Some Muslims of Yanya Vilâyeti, taken by Greece, also fled to Albania. However, the number of refugees to Albania remained small, a much smaller group than those who fled elsewhere, because Albania was too poor to support refugees. Refugees to Albania had few places to go for succor. Some probably survived and became part of the Muslim population of the truncated Albanian state. Given the generally poor conditions in Albania, however, most of them probably perished.

The refugees in Albania, of whom there were approximately 60,000, had fled from the regions of Debre (Dibra), Kirçova (Kirtchevo), and Göriçe (Koritza) in Manastir Vilâyeti after a futile attempt to resist the Serbs. Others came from the region of Yakova (in Kosova Vilâyeti), again refugees from the Serbs and Montenegrins. By November of 1918, 9,000 Muslim refugees were in Üsküdar alone. Perhaps 30,000 to 40,000 were in the district of Elbessan. Many were in the mountains, usually without food, and most of those must have died. The refugees seem to have especially feared the Montenegrins, who burned down each Muslim village they reached, whether they met resistance or not.

The refugees in Salonica fared better than those in Albania. Salonica became the depot for Muslim refugees from areas taken by all three Christian powers -- Muslims of the vilayets of Kosova, Manastir, and Selanik. In Salonica, there were no organized assistance programs for Turkish refugees, and disease and starvation claimed many, but groups such as the Salonica Islamic Committee did arrange for ships to take many to Anatolia. Immediately after the wars, the Greek government organized convoys of the remaining refugees and sent them to Ottoman lands.

Refugees from the area south of the old Bulgarian border, from Nevrekob, Rubçuz, and Razlog, as well as from the Drama, Pravishta, Sarșaban, and Cavalla regions, fled into the city of Cavalla as soon as the war began. Some 10,000 refugees had gathered in Cavalla by November of 1913. Some of these were removed by boat. The Khedive of Egypt arranged the passage of 5,000 to Egypt aboard his private yacht. As more refugees arrived, they were gradually shipped off to Istanbul and İzmir, perhaps 15,000 in all.

Muslim refugees were attacked on the roads as they fled. Due to the rapid collapse of the Ottoman armies, refugees often had little time to reach places of relative safety before they were overcome by Bulgarian or Greek troops. Even if no regular troops reached the refugees, there was great danger from groups of Bulgarian komitajis. The komitajis operated behind Ottoman lines and, when the Ottoman armies broke up or surrendered, the komitajis outpaced the regular armies in reaching Turkish villages and groups of refugees. They seized or extorted all they could from the refugees, physically assaulting and raping and often killing many or all in a refugee group. "Of some 1500 Mussulmans who endeavored to escape to Cavalla [from Drama], barely half are believed to have reached the latter place. For 8 or 10 days afterwards the road is stated to have been quite thickly strewn with unburied corpses."

Disease was a major cause of mortality among the refugees. In addition to the expected cases of typhus and typhoid, which ravaged the refugees of the Balkan Wars, just as these diseases had those from earlier wars, cholera appeared in the refugee camps outside of Istanbul. Attempts were made by Ottoman and Western relief agencies to assist the victims, but, once again, the speed of the Ottoman loss made it difficult to organize relief measures.

Cessation of fighting did not mean safety for Muslim refugees. They were torn between emigration to an unknown, but Muslimruled, land or waiting for the chance to return to their villages, now under Christian rule. Many chose the latter. The lands they hoped to retain had often been in the possession of their families for centuries. Moreover, their experiences as refugees cannot have made them desirous to continue in refugee status, and travelling to Anatolia or elsewhere, to a place where they had no land or history, must have seemed to be a promise of continued life as a refugee. In the face of migration to an unknown land, the chance of return to their homes must have had great appeal. Despite their bitter knowledge of the hatred of their neighbors, the danger from the komitajis, and the animosity of the new governments, many Muslim refugees must have told themselves that all would be well if somehow they returned home. For all peoples, the image of Home has a powerful magic.

It was often the case, of course, that refugees had no option of further flight. Unable to escape to what remained of the Ottoman Empire, driven from their refuges by the conquerors, they had no choice but to try to return home:

Notice had been given by means of public criers that all the refugees from the surrounding country, who had collected in the town [Serres], should return freely to their villages. A large number of Turks from the Melnik district accordingly set out to return, but, on arriving in the neighborhood of Petrich, they began to learn that their villages had in the meantime been [destroyed] as above related. They therefore halted in the town of Petrich where, on the 4-17th November the Bulgars fell upon them and massacred over 200. Twelve hundred (?) more are said to have been massacred at Orman Tchiftlik on the banks of the Strouma Karasou, into which their corpses were mostly flung. 150 more were murdered at the village of Gjurgjevo, from which also 1200 head of cattle and 13,000 goats were looted by the neighboring Bulgarian villagers. Six women were forcibly converted to Christianity. On the 20 [November]-2 December a public crier invited all the Mussulmans still remaining in Petrich to assemble before the Sub-Governor. They accordingly presented themselves to the number of 364, who were dispatched to the barracks escorted by soldiers with fixed bayonets. 160 of these were at once put to death, the remainder being temporarily spared, but a few days later another hundred of them were also put to death.

The villagers of Katountza, who had actually returned to their village under safe-conduct from the authorities at Serres, were first plundered of what little they had left and then massacred by a band of 15 irregulars, after they had been three or four days in their homes.

There were many similar occurrences elsewhere. For example, columns of Muslim refugees from Strumnitsa and Radovișta were fleeing toward Salonica when they were overtaken by Bulgarian soldiers. Their opportunities limited, the refugees turned around. They had reached Kostorino, half-way between Doyran and Strumnitsa, when they were attacked by local Bulgarians. Between 700 and 800 were reportedly massacred and 400 died of cold and starvation.

Not all refugees from occupied areas fled during the wars. A certain number of Muslims in areas such as Strumnitsa and Melnik managed to survive the initial depredations of the Bulgarian and Greek occupations. Although the Greeks held the region at the end of the wars, by the terms of the Treaty of Bucharest, those areas were given to the Bulgarians. The Greeks insured that the Bulgarians would find a wasteland by removing the population and destroying most of the houses when they left.

In Strumnitsa and neighboring villages, word was spread by Greek officials that all Muslims and Greeks would be massacred by the Bulgarians if they remained -- given past events, a credible threat. Moreover, they were told that their houses would be burned by the Greek army as it retreated. Those who still wished to remain, mostly Muslims and Jews, were forced out at bayonet point. From 21 to 23 August 1913, Greek soldiers burnt the houses vacated by the refugees. The Greek press and government, in an effort at swaying European opinion, declared that the refugees had burnt their houses down "with their own hands," rather than remain under Bulgarian rule. Greek refugees from the Strumnitsa region were given the houses and farms of Bulgarians and Muslims who had been evicted (or had died) in the Kukush region taken by Greece. The Muslim refugees were given nothing.

Kaynakça
Kitap: Death and Exile: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821-1922
Yazar: Justin McCarthy
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Re: Balkan Savaşlarında Müslüman Mülteciler

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 30 Nis 2011, 14:54

TABLE 9, MUSLIM REFUGEE NUMBERS:

Salonica 30,0009 March 1913 113
Manastιr 9,0009 March 1913 113
8,00030 November 1913 114
Serres 4,0009 March 1913 113
Drama 1,0009 March 1913 113
Gevgili 1,0009 March 1913 113
Üsküdar 8,50028 October 1913 115
9,00018 November 1913 116
2,50020 December 1913 117
Cavalla 20,0008 November 1912 118
10,00026 August 1913 119
Biga 30,00023 December 1912 120
İzmir 65,00018 July 1913 121
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Re: Balkan Savaşlarında Müslüman Mülteciler

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 30 Nis 2011, 14:54

Table 9 gives a rough idea of the refugee numbers in cities, as estimated by European observers at various times. The figures give little more than an approximate impression of refugee numbers. Many of the refugees had already passed through the cities when the numbers were estimated; many never stopped in the cities at all; and many of those listed in Table 9 died before they reached a safe refuge. Moreover, a large number of refugees moved back and forth across the Balkans, following their own hopes that they would once again be received in the villages from which they had fled or following the changing luck of the Ottoman armies. Edirne, for example, had received the Turkish refugees of western Selanik Vilâyeti (western Macedonia) and Edirne Vilâyeti (eastern Thrace). The refugees who escaped to Edirne were forced to flee once again when the Bulgarian armies conquered Edirne Vilâyeti. They went to Istanbul and Anatolia, some returning with the Ottoman armies when much of Edirne Vilâyeti was reconquered in the Second Balkan War.

Although difficult to believe, many Muslims seem to have remained on their lands during the First Balkan War, or to have returned to them soon after the war, only to be finally driven out in the second war. When the American Carnegie Commission of Inquiry visited Salonica during the Second Balkan War they found that 135,000 Muslims had already come to the city during the second war alone, and more were arriving.

Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire signed a convention ( October 1913) for the exchange of Thracian Bulgarians and Bulgarian Turks, after which more Turkish refugees entered the Ottoman Empire. At the same time, Greece and Turkey entered into a partial de facto population exchange, in which Turks from Greece replaced Greek migrants from Thrace and Anatolia.

It is impossible to divide statistically those who were refugees during the Balkan Wars from refugees of the World War I period. The short period of time that passed between the Balkan Wars and the onset of World War I precluded the taking of censuses and publication of statistics. Only after the World War and the Turkish War of Independence were finished did accurate statistics become available. For that reason, a certain (relatively small) number of later refugees to the Ottoman Empire from the Balkan countries are included in the statistics in Table Four. (As the dates indicate, the figures in Table 10 do not include Muslims exchanged in the later Greco-Turkish Population Exchange.)
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Re: Balkan Savaşlarında Müslüman Mülteciler

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 30 Nis 2011, 14:57

TABLE 10. MUSLIM REFUGEES FROM THE BALKANS, 1912-20, WITH AREAS OF SETTLEMENT.

VilâyetsIndependent SancaksVilâyetsIndependent Sancaks
İstanbul 3,609İzmit 6,771
Edirne 132,500Eskişehir 9,088
Adana 9,059Bolu 258
Ankara 10,008Canik 3,875
Aydin 145,868Çatalca 7,500
Haleb 124 10,504Karasi 14,687
Hüdavendigâr 20,853Biga 4,033
Sivas 10,805Kayseri 6,140
Suriye 3,187Karahisar 280
Kastamonu 257Menteşe 855
Konya 8,512Maraş 5,031
Mamuretülaziz 242
Total 413,922


Source: Turkish Ministry of Interior statistics.

The figures in Table 10 were compiled from records of the Ottoman Refugee Commission (Muhacirin Komisyonu). They do not include soldiers and Ottoman government officials who fled the Balkans. With few exceptions, Muslim refugees from the Balkans were recorded by the Refugee Commission 126. The Commission oversaw the settlement of the emigrants all over Thrace and Anatolia ( Table 10 ), although the greatest number were settled in eastern Thrace and western Anatolia. A total of 413,922 refugees was recorded.
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