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Balkanlarda Nüfus Değişikliği

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 30 Nis 2011, 15:10

POPULATION CHANGE IN THE BALKANS

By the end of 1913, through a process of death and forced migration, Muslims had become a minority all over the Balkans. However, in the conquered regions, Muslims had been an absolute majority before the Balkan Wars began (Table 11).

TABLE 11. REGIONS OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE TAKEN BY THE BALKAN ALLIES. POPULATION IN 1911, BEFORE THE BALKAN WARS.

GreekConquest Bulgarian Conquest SerbianConquest
Muslim746,485327,7321,241,076
Greek797,11829,255285,985
Bulgarian145,186204,701781,769
Jewish75,5229209,866
Other8,41919,04422,122
Total1,772,730581,6522,340,818

Source: McCarthy, "The Population of Ottoman Europe".

Before the Balkan Wars, the Greeks had a slight plurality in the entire area they were to take from the Ottoman Empire. The Greek predominance was regional. Certain of the districts taken by Greece, such as those from Yanya Vilâyeti, were indeed heavily Greek. Others were overwhelmingly Muslim. The areas taken by the Greeks from Edirne Vilâyeti had almost three times as many Muslims as Greeks. Drama Sancagi of Selanik, taken by Greece, had seven times as many Muslims as Greeks. In fact, the Greek population was centered in the western section of the area Greece took from the Ottomans. If a north-south border had been drawn west of the city of Salonica in 1911, the area to the west of the border would have been heavily Greek, the area to the east heavily Muslim.

In 1911, the Ottoman areas that would later be taken by Bulgaria were 56 percent & Muslim. In the section Bulgaria took from Edirne Vilâyeti, only one small kaza, Tirnova, had a Bulgarian majority (72 percent). But the areas to be taken by Bulgaria from Selanik Vilâyeti -- the northern kazas of Siroz Sancaǧi -- had a true Bulgarian majority (54 percent). (These statistics include a large amount of out-migration of Bulgarians and in-migration of Muslims after the troubles of 1876-78.)

Muslims were 53 percent of the region taken by Serbia. Only in Manastir Sancaǧi, of Manastir Vilâyeti, had there been a Christian majority, and, by religious identification at least, most Christians of Manastir Sancaǧi had identified themselves as Bulgarian. Despite this, the areas taken by Serbia from Manastir Vilâyeti had indeed been largely Christian (65 percent) in 1911, whereas the other areas taken by Serbia had been largely Muslim (59 percent).

Muslim demographic predominance in the Ottoman Balkans ended with the Balkan Wars, but many of Greece's Muslims did not leave for Turkey until World War I; more went in the Compulsory Population Exchange between Greece and Turkey in 1923. Thus the emigration from Greece did not end until more than ten years after the end of the Balkan Wars.

Table 12 lists the population of the conquered areas of the Balkans as they were when Bulgaria, Greece, and Yugoslavia (the successor to Serbia) took their first censuses after World War I. Because Albanian population statistics do not exist for this period, no attempt has been made to include Albania in the figures.

TABLE 12. POPULATION AFTER THE WARS. AREAS OF GREECE, BULGARIA, AND YUGOSLAVIA TAKEN FROM THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE.

Greece 1923Bulgaria 1920Yugoslavia 1921
Muslim124,460179,176566,478
Greek1,773,964*949,366*
Bulgarian192,552*
Jewish65,5697046,103
Other7,46789818,277
Totals1,971,460373,3301,540,224

* Listed only as "Orthodox."
Sources: Greek, Bulgarian, and Yugoslavian censuses for the years listed.


Seventeen percent of the 1911 Muslim population of the area taken by Greece remained there in 1923. The Christian population of the same region had doubled. Muslim population in the districts taken by Bulgaria and Yugoslavia also greatly declined. In the lands conquered by Serbia/ Yugoslavia, 46 percent of the pre-war Muslims remained, in the Bulgarian conquests, 55 percent. (Both areas also showed decline in the Christian population -- 11 percent in the lands conquered by Serbia, 17 percent in the lands conquered by Bulgaria -- both partly due to wartime deaths and partly to migration). 135 Overall, 62 percent of the Muslims were gone from the region.

Kaynakça
Kitap: Death and Exile: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821-1922
Yazar: Justin McCarthy
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TurkmenCopur
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Re: Balkanlarda Nüfus Değişikliği

Mesajgönderen TurkmenCopur » 30 Nis 2011, 15:12

TABLE 13. MUSLIMS IN OTTOMAN AREAS TAKEN BY GREECE, BULGARIA, AND YUGOSLAVIA AND MUSLIMS REMAINING IN THOSE COUNTRIES.

Muslimsin 1911Muslims RemainingDifference
Greece746,485124,460622,025
Bulgaria327,732179,176148,556
Yugoslavia1,241,076566,478674,598
Totals2,315,293870,1141,445,179

Source: McCarthy, "The Population of Ottoman Europe".

Of the 2,315,293 Muslims who had lived in the areas taken from the Ottoman Empire in Europe (excluding Albania), 1,445,179 (62 percent) were gone. Of these, 413,922 were migrants to Turkey during and after the Balkan Wars ( 1912-20); and 398,849 came to Turkey between 1921 and 1926, most as part of the Greek-Turkish Population Exchange. But 812,771 Muslims from Ottoman Europe had survived as refugees. The remaining 632,408 were dead. Twenty-seven percent of the Muslim population of conquered Ottoman Europe had died.
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